LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Gordon, Joanne C.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Daley, Monica A. (2015)
Publisher: The Company of Biologists
Journal: The Journal of Experimental Biology
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Numida meleagris, Research Article, Bird, Muscle, Bipedal, Visuomotor control, Stability
ABSTRACT Locomotor control mechanisms must flexibly adapt to both anticipated and unexpected terrain changes to maintain movement and avoid a fall. Recent studies revealed that ground birds alter movement in advance of overground obstacles, but not treadmill obstacles, suggesting context-dependent shifts in the use of anticipatory control. We hypothesized that differences between overground and treadmill obstacle negotiation relate to differences in visual sensory information, which influence the ability to execute anticipatory manoeuvres. We explored two possible explanations: (1) previous treadmill obstacles may have been visually imperceptible, as they were low contrast to the tread, and (2) treadmill obstacles are visible for a shorter time compared with runway obstacles, limiting time available for visuomotor adjustments. To investigate these factors, we measured electromyographic activity in eight hindlimb muscles of the guinea fowl (Numida meleagris, N=6) during treadmill locomotion at two speeds (0.7 and 1.3?m?s?1) and three terrain conditions at each speed: (i) level, (ii) repeated 5?cm low-contrast obstacles (<10% contrast, black/black), and (iii) repeated 5?cm high-contrast obstacles (>90% contrast, black/white). We hypothesized that anticipatory changes in muscle activity would be higher for (1) high-contrast obstacles and (2) the slower treadmill speed, when obstacle viewing time is longer. We found that treadmill speed significantly influenced obstacle negotiation strategy, but obstacle contrast did not. At the slower speed, we observed earlier and larger anticipatory increases in muscle activity and shifts in kinematic timing. We discuss possible visuomotor explanations for the observed context-dependent use of anticipatory strategies.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Akaike, H. (1976). An information criterion (AIC). Math. Sci. 14, 5-9.
    • Belmonti, V., Cioni, G. and Berthoz, A. (2013). Development of anticipatory orienting strategies and trajectory formation in goal-oriented locomotion. Exp. Brain Res. 227, 131-147.
    • Birn-Jeffery, A. V. (2012). Scaling of running stability and limb posture with body size in galliform birds. PhD Thesis, Royal Veterinary College, UK.
    • Birn-Jeffery, A. V. and Daley, M. A. (2012). Birds achieve high robustness in uneven terrain through active control of landing conditions. J. Exp. Biol. 215, 2117-2127.
    • Birn-Jeffery, A. V., Hubicki, C. M., Blum, Y., Renjewski, D., Hurst, J. W. and Daley, M. A. (2014). Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain. J. Exp. Biol. 217, 3786-3796.
    • Bizzi, E. and Cheung, V. C. K. (2013). The neural origin of muscle synergies. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 7, 51.
    • Capaday, C. and Stein, R. B. (1987). Difference in the amplitude of the human soleus H reflex during walking and running. J. Physiol. 392, 513-522.
    • Cavanagh, P. R. and Komi, P. V. (1979). Electromechanical delay in human skeletal muscle under concentric and eccentric contractions. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 42, 159-163.
    • Chvatal, S. A. and Ting, L. H. (2012). Voluntary and reactive recruitment of locomotor muscle synergies during perturbed walking. J. Neurosci. 32, 12237-12250.
    • Cinelli, M. E. and Patla, A. E. (2008). Task-specific modulations of locomotor action parameters based on on-line visual information during collision avoidance with moving objects. Hum. Mov. Sci. 27, 513-531.
    • da Silva, J. J., Barbieri, F. A. and Gobbi, L. T. (2011). Adaptive locomotion for crossing a moving obstacle. Motor Control 15, 419-433.
    • Daley, M. A. and Biewener, A. A. (2011). Leg muscles that mediate stability: mechanics and control of two distal extensor muscles during obstacle negotiation in the guinea fowl. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 366, 1580-1591.
    • Daley, M. A., Felix, G. and Biewener, A. A. (2007). Running stability is enhanced by a proximo-distal gradient in joint neuromechanical control. J. Exp. Biol. 210, 732-732.
    • Daley, M. A., Voloshina, A. and Biewener, A. A. (2009). The role of intrinsic muscle mechanics in the neuromuscular control of stable running in the guinea fowl. J. Physiol. 587, 2693-2707.
    • d'Avella, A. and Bizzi, E. (2005). Shared and specific muscle synergies in natural motor behaviors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 3076-3081.
    • Deban, S. M. and Carrier, D. R. (2002). Hypaxial muscle activity during running and breathing in dogs. J. Exp. Biol. 205, 1953-1967.
    • Dickinson, M. H., Farley, C. T., Full, R. J., Koehl, M. A., Kram, R. and Lehman, S. (2000). How animals move: an integrative view. Science 288, 100-106.
    • Donelan, J. M., McVea, D. A. and Pearson, K. G. (2009). Force regulation of ankle extensor muscle activity in freely walking cats. J. Neurophysiol. 101, 360-371.
    • Duysens, J. and Loeb, G. E. (1980). Modulation of ipsilateral and contralateral reflex responses in unrestrained walking cats. J. Neurophysiol. 44, 1024-1037.
    • Fajen, B. R., Parade, M. S. and Matthis, J. S. (2013). Humans perceive object motion in world coordinates during obstacle avoidance. J. Vis. 13, 25.
    • Ferris, D. P., Liang, K. and Farley, C. T. (1999). Runners adjust leg stiffness for their first step on a new running surface. J. Biomech. 32, 787-794.
    • Fowler, G. A. and Sherk, H. (2003). Gaze during visually-guided locomotion in cats. Behav. Brain Res. 139, 83-96.
    • Frigon, A. and Rossignol, S. (2006). Experiments and models of sensorimotor interactions during locomotion. Biol. Cybern. 95, 607-627.
    • Full, R. J. and Koditschek, D. E. (1999). Templates and anchors: neuromechanical hypotheses of legged locomotion on land. J. Exp. Biol. 202, 3325-3332.
    • Gatesy, S. M. (1999). Guineafowl hind limb function. II: Electromyographic analysis and motor pattern evolution. J. Morphol. 240, 127-142.
    • Gatesy, S. M. and Biewener, A. A. (1991). Bipedal locomotion: effects of speed, size and limb posture in birds and humans. J. Zool. 224, 127-147.
    • Ghim, M. M. and Hodos, W. (2006). Spatial contrast sensitivity of birds. J. Comp. Physiol. A 192, 523-534.
    • Hollands, M. A., Patla, A. E. and Vickers, J. N. (2002). “Look where you're going!”: gaze behaviour associated with maintaining and changing the direction of locomotion. Exp. Brain Res. 143, 221-230.
    • Jindrich, D. L. and Full, R. J. (2002). Dynamic stabilization of rapid hexapedal locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 205, 2803-2823.
    • John, C. T., Anderson, F. C., Higginson, J. S. and Delp, S. L. (2013). Stabilisation of walking by intrinsic muscle properties revealed in a three-dimensional muscledriven simulation. Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Engin. 16, 451-462.
    • Kuo, A. D. (2002). The relative roles of feedforward and feedback in the control of rhythmic movements. Motor Control 6, 129-145.
    • Marigold, D. S. and Patla, A. E. (2007). Gaze fixation patterns for negotiating complex ground terrain. Neuroscience 144, 302-313.
    • Marigold, D. S. and Patla, A. E. (2008). Visual information from the lower visual field is important for walking across multi-surface terrain. Exp. Brain Res. 188, 23-31.
    • Martin, G. R. (2011). Understanding bird collisions with man-made objects: a sensory ecology approach. Ibis 153, 239-254.
    • Martin, G. R. (2014). The subtlety of simple eyes: the tuning of visual fields to perceptual challenges in birds. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 369, 20130040.
    • Matthis, J. S. and Fajen, B. R. (2013). Humans exploit the biomechanics of bipedal gait during visually guided walking over complex terrain. Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 280, 20130700.
    • Matthis, J. S. and Fajen, B. R. (2014). Visual control of foot placement when walking over complex terrain. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 40, 106-115.
    • Mohagheghi, A. A., Moraes, R. and Patla, A. E. (2004). The effects of distant and on-line visual information on the control of approach phase and step over an obstacle during locomotion. Exp. Brain Res. 155, 459-468.
    • Moritz, C. T. and Farley, C. T. (2004). Passive dynamics change leg mechanics for an unexpected surface during human hopping. J. Appl. Physiol. 97, 1313-1322.
    • Moritz, C. T. and Farley, C. T. (2005). Human hopping on very soft elastic surfaces: implications for muscle pre-stretch and elastic energy storage in locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 208, 939-949.
    • Mü ller, R., Grimmer, S. and Blickhan, R. (2010). Running on uneven ground: leg adjustments by muscle pre-activation control. Hum. Mov. Sci. 29, 299-310.
    • Nichols, R. and Ross, K. T. (2009). The implications of force feedback for the λ model. In Progress in Motor Control (ed. D. Sternad), pp. 663-679. New York: Springer.
    • Nishikawa, K., Biewener, A. A., Aerts, P., Ahn, A. N., Chiel, H. J., Daley, M. A., Daniel, T. L., Full, R. J., Hale, M. E., Hedrick, T. L. et al. (2007). Neuromechanics: an integrative approach for understanding motor control. Integr. Comp. Biol. 47, 16-54.
    • Patla, A. E. (1997). Understanding the roles of vision in the control of human locomotion. Gait Posture 5, 54-69.
    • Patla, A. E. (1998). How is human gait controlled by vision. Ecol. Psychol. 10, 287-302.
    • Patla, A. E. and Vickers, J. N. (2003). How far ahead do we look when required to step on specific locations in the travel path during locomotion? Exp. Brain Res. 148, 133-138.
    • Patla, A. E., Prentice, S. D., Robinson, C. and Neufeld, J. (1991). Visual control of locomotion: strategies for changing direction and for going over obstacles. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform 17, 603-634.
    • Patla, A. E., Niechwiej, E., Racco, V. and Goodale, M. A. (2002). Understanding the contribution of binocular vision to the control of adaptive locomotion. Exp. Brain Res. 142, 551-561.
    • Pearson, K. (2000). Motor systems. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 10, 649-654.
    • Prilutsky, B. I. (2000). Coordination of two- and one-joint muscles: functional consequences and implications for motor control. Motor Control 4, 1-44.
    • Prochazka, A. and Ellaway, P. (2012). Sensory systems in the control of movement. Comp. Physiol. 2, 2615-2627.
    • Prokop, T., Schubert, M. and Berger, W. (1997). Visual influence on human locomotion modulation to changes in optic flow. Exp. Brain Res. 114, 63-70.
    • R Development Core Team (2008). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
    • Reis, D. J. (1961). The palmomental reflex. A fragment of a general nociceptive skin reflex: a physiological study in normal man. Arch. Neurol. 4, 486-498.
    • Ross, K. T. and Nichols, T. R. (2009). Heterogenic feedback between hindlimb extensors in the spontaneously locomoting premammillary cat. J. Neurophysiol. 101, 184-197.
    • Sponberg, S., Libby, T., Mullens, C. H. and Full, R. J. (2011a). Shifts in a single muscle's control potential of body dynamics are determined by mechanical feedback. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 366, 1606-1620.
    • Sponberg, S., Spence, A. J., Mullens, C. H. and Full, R. J. (2011b). A single muscle's multifunctional control potential of body dynamics for postural control and running. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 366, 1592-1605.
    • Stein, R. B. and Capaday, C. (1988). The modulation of human reflexes during functional motor tasks. Trends Neurosci. 11, 328-332.
    • Van Why, J., Hubicki, C., Jones, M., Daley, M. and Hurst, J. (2014). Running into a trap: numerical design of task-optimal preflex behaviors for delayed disturbance responses. IROS (IEEE/RSJ International Conference), 2537-2542.
    • Voloshina, A. S., Kuo, A. D., Daley, M. A. and Ferris, D. P. (2013). Biomechanics and energetics of walking on uneven terrain. J. Exp. Biol. 216, 3963-3970.
    • von Tscharner, V. (2000). Intensity analysis in time-frequency space of surface myoelectric signals by wavelets of specified resolution. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 10, 433-445.
    • Wakeling, J. M., Kaya, M., Temple, G. K., Johnston, I. A. and Herzog, W. (2002). Determining patterns of motor recruitment during locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 205, 359-369.
    • Yakovenko, S., Gritsenko, V. and Prochazka, A. (2004). Contribution of stretch reflexes to locomotor control: a modeling study. Biol. Cybern. 90, 146-155.
    • Yakovenko, S., McCrea, D. A., Stecina, K. and Prochazka, A. (2005). Control of locomotor cycle durations. J. Neurophysiol. 94, 1057-1065.
    • Zehr, E. P. and Stein, R. B. (1999). What functions do reflexes serve during human locomotion? Prog. Neurobiol. 58, 185-205.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • RCUK | Mechanics and energetics o...

Cite this article