Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:

OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]openaire.eu

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Stovin, V; Poë, S; De-Ville, S; Berretta, C (2015)
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Ecological Engineering
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law, Environmental Engineering, Nature and Landscape Conservation
A four-year record of rainfall and runoff data from nine different extensive (80 mm substrate) green roof\ud test beds has been analysed to establish the extent to which the substrate composition and vegetation\ud treatment affect hydrological performance. The test beds incorporated three different substrate components\ud with different porosity and moisture retention characteristics, and three different vegetation\ud treatments (Sedum, Meadow Flower and unvegetated).\ud Consistent differences were observed, with the vegetated beds showing higher levels of rainfall retention\ud and better detention compared with unvegetated beds. The seasonal Meadow Flower beds had\ud similar hydrological performance to Sedum-vegetated beds. There was a 27% performance reduction in\ud annual volumetric retention attributable to differences in substrate and vegetation. The beds with the\ud most porous/permeable substrates showed the lowest levels of both retention and detention.\ud As with previous studies, retention efficiency in all nine beds showed a strong dependency on rainfall\ud depth (P), with retention typically >80% for events where P < 10 mm, but significantly lower when\ud P > 10 mm. The effects of vegetation and substrate were most evident for rainfall events where P > 10 mm,\ud with the mean per-event retention varying between beds from 26.8% to 61.8%. On average, the test beds\ud were able to retain the first 5 mm of rainfall in 65% of events where P > 5 mm, although this ranged from\ud 29.4% to 70.6% of events depending on configuration. In terms of detention, all but one of the test beds\ud could achieve runoff control to a green field runoff equivalent of 2 l/s/ha for more than 75% of events.\ud Detention was also characterised via the calibration of a reservoir-routing modelthatlinked net rainfall\ud to the measured runoff response. The parameter values identified here – when combined with a suitable\ud evapotranspiration/retention model – provide a generic mechanism for predicting the runoff response\ud to a time-series or design rainfall for any unmonitored system with comparable components, permitting\ud comparison against local regulatory requirements.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Alfredo, K., Montalto, F., Goldstein, A., 2010. Observed and modeled performances of prototype green roof test plots subjected to simulated low- and high-intensity precipitations in a laboratory experiment. J. Hydrol. Eng. 15 (6), 444-457.
    • Beattie, D., Berghage, R., 2004. Green roof media characteristics: the basics. In: Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, 2-4 June, Portland.
    • Bengtsson, L., Grahn, L., Olsson, J., 2005. Hydrological function of a thin extensive green roof in southern Sweden. Nordic Hydrol. 36 (3), 259-268.
    • Benvenuti, S., 2014. Wildflower green roofs for urban landscaping, ecological sustainability and biodiversity. Landsc. Urban Plan. 124, 151-161.
    • Berghage, R., Jarrett, A., et al., 2007. Quantifying Evaporation and Transpirational Water Losses from Green Roofs and Green Roof Media Capacity for Neutralising Acid Rain. In: National Decentralised Water Resources Capacity Development Project. Pennsylvania State University, Available from: http://www.ndwrcdp.org/documents/04-DEC-10SG/04-DEC-10SG.pdf.
    • Berretta, C., Poë, S., Stovin, V., 2014a. Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: the influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics. J. Hydrol. 511, 374-386.
    • Berretta, C., Poë, S., Stovin, V., 2014b. The influence of substrate and vegetation on extensive green roof hydrological performance. In: 13th International Conference on Urban Drainage, ICUD 2014, 7-12 September, Malaysia.
    • Brickell, C.D., 2008. RHS A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. Royal Horticultural Society.
    • Bruand, A., Cousin, I., Nicoullaud, B., Duval, O., Begon, J.C., 1996. Backscattered electron scanning images of soil porosity for analyzing soil compaction around roots. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60, 895-901.
    • Buccola, N., Spolek, G., 2010. A pilot-scale evaluation of greenroof runoff retention, detention, and quality. Water Air Soil Pollut. 216 (1-4), 83-92.
    • Carter, T., Rasmussen, T., 2006. Hydrologic behaviour of vegetated roofs. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 42 (5), 1261-1274.
    • Colli, M., Palla, A., Lanza, L.G., Crasso, M., 2010. Hydrological performance of greenroof systems from a laboratory test-bed. In: World Green Roof Congress, 15-16 September 2010, London, UK.
    • De-Ville, S., Menon, M., Stovin, V., 2015. Using X-Ray Microtomography to identify physical changes in green roof substrates as a result of ageing. In: The Annual Postgraduate Research Student Conference, 15 April 2015, Sheffield, UK http:// www.gruppofrattura.it/pdf/Sheffield2015/index.html#12.
    • Fassman, E., Simcock, R., 2012. Moisture measurements as performance criteria for extensive living roof substrates. J. Environ. Eng. (ASCE) 138 (8), 841-851.
    • Fassman-Beck, E., Voyde, E., Simcock, R., Hong, Y.S., 2013. 4 living roofs in 3 locations: does configuration affect runoff mitigation? J. Hydrol. 490, 11-20.
    • FLL (Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau), 2008. Guidelines for the Planning, Construction and Maintenance of Green Roofing. Forschungsgesellschaft Landschaftsentwicklung Landschaftsbau e. V., Bonn, Germany.
    • Getter, K., Rowe, D., Andresen, J., 2007. Quantifying the effects of slope of extensive green roof stormwater retention. Ecol. Eng. 31, 225-231.
    • Graceson, A., Hare, M., Monaghan, J., Hall, N., 2013. The water retention capabilities of growing media for green roofs. Ecol. Eng. 61, 328-334.
    • Hillel, D., 1998. Environmental Soil Physics. Academic Press, San Diego.
    • Hilten, R.N., Lawrence, T.M., Tollner, E.W., 2008. Modeling stormwater runoff from green roofs with HYDRUS-1D. J. Hydrol. 358 (3-4), 288-293.
    • Kasmin, H., Stovin, V.R., Hathway, E.A., 2010. Towards a generic rainfall-runoff model for green roofs. Water Sci. Technol. 62 (4), 898-905.
    • Koehler, M., Schmidt, M., 2008. Benefits for sustainable water management - green roof technology. In: World Green Roof Congress, 17-18 September, London.
    • Koshimizu, H., 2008. A test calculation of the storm water outflow attenuation by green roofs in a high-density city area. In: World Green Roof Congress, 17-18 September, London.
    • Li, Y., Babcock, R.W., 2014. Green roof hydrologic performance and modelling: a review. Water Sci. Technol. 69 (4), 727-738.
    • Locatelli, L., Mark, O., Mikkelsen, P.S., Arnberg-Nielsen, K., Jensen, M.B., Binning, P.J., 2014. Modelling of green roof hydrological performance for urban drainage applications. J. Hydrol. 519, 3237-3248.
    • Lu, J., Yuan, J., Yang, J., Yang, Z., 2014. Responses of morphology and drought tolerance of Sedum lineare to watering regime in green roof system: a root perspective. Urban For. Urban Green. 13, 682-688.
    • MacMillan, G., 2004. York University rooftop garden stormwater quantity and quality performance monitoring report. In: Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, 2-4 June, Portland.
    • Manning, J., 1987. Applied Principles of Hydrology. Merrill Publishing, Ohio.
    • MATLAB, 2007. MATLAB version R2007b. The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA.
    • Miller, C., 2003. Moisture management in green roofs. In: Proc. Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, 29-30 May, Chicago.
    • Monterusso, M.A., Rowe, D.B., Rugh, C.L., Russell, D.K., 2004. Runoff water quantity and quality from green roof systems. Acta Hortic. 639, 369-376.
    • Nagase, A., Dunnett, N., 2012. Amount of water runoff from different vegetation types on extensive green roofs: effects of plant species, diversity and plant structure. Landsc. Urban Plan. 104 (3-4), 356-363.
    • NERC (Natural Environment Research Council), 1999. Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) CD.
    • Palla, A., Gnecco, I., Lanza, L.G., 2010. Hydrologic restoration in the urban environment using green roofs. Water 2, 140-154.
    • Palla, A., Gnecco, I., Lanza, L.G., 2012. Compared performance of a conceptual and a mechanistic hydrologic models of a green roof. Hydrol. Processes 26 (1), 73-84.
    • Poë, S., Stovin, V., Dunsiger, Z., 2011. The impact of green roof configuration on hydrological performance. In: 12th International Conference on Urban Drainage, 11-16 September, Porto Alegre/Brazil.
    • Poë, S., Stovin, V.R., Berretta, C., 2015. Parameters influencing the regeneration of a green roof's retention capacity via evapotranspiration. J. Hydrol. 523, 356-367.
    • Rezaei, F., Jarrett, A.R.,2006. Measure and predict evapotranspiration rate from green roof plant species. In: Penn State College of Engineering Research Symposium. Penn State University.
    • Rowe, D.B., Rugh, C.L., VanWoert, N., Monterusso, M.A., Russell, D.K., 2003. Green roof slope, substrate depth and vegetation influence runoff. In: Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities, 29-30 May, Chicago.
    • Schwen, A., Bodner, G., Scholl, P., Buchan, G.D., Loiskandl, W., 2011. Temporal dynamics of soil hydraulic properties and the water-conducting porosity under different tillage. Soil Tillage Res. 113 (2), 89-98.
    • Snodgrass, E.C., Snodgrass, L.L., 2006. Green Roof Plants: A Resource and Planting Guide. Timber Press, Portland Oregon.
    • Stovin, V., Vesuviano, G., Kasmin, H., 2012. The hydrological performance of a green roof test bed under UK climatic conditions. J. Hydrol., 414-415, 148-161.
    • Stovin, V., Poë, S., Berretta, C., 2013. A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance. J. Environ. Manage. 131, 206-215.
    • Stovin, V., Vesuviano, G., De-Ville, S., 2015. Defining green roof detention performance. Urban Water J., 1049279, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2015.
    • UK Met Office, 2015, http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/ gcqzwtdw7.
    • VanWoert, N.D., Rowe, D.B., Andresen, J.A., Rugh, C.L., Fernandez, R.T., Xiao, L., 2005. Green roof stormwater retention: effects of roof surface, slope, and media depth. J. Environ. Qual. 34, 1036-1044.
    • Vesuviano, G., (Ph.D. thesis) 2014. A Two-Stage Runoff Detention Model for a Green Roof. Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The University of Sheffield.
    • Vesuviano, G., Sonnenwald, F., Stovin, V., 2014. A two-stage routing model for green roof runoff detention. Water Sci. Technol. 69 (6), 1191-1197.
    • Vesuviano, G., Stovin, V., 2013. A generic hydrological model for a green roof drainage layer. Water Sci. Technol. 68 (4), 769-775.
    • Villarreal, E.L., 2007. Runoff detention effect of a sedum green-roof. Nordic Hydrol. 38 (1), 99-105.
    • Villarreal, E.L., Bengtsson, L., 2005. Response of a Sedum green-roof to individual rain events. Ecol. Eng. 25 (1), 1-7.
    • Voyde, E., Fassman, E., Simcock, R., Wells, J., 2010a. Quantifying evapotranspiration rates for New Zealand green roofs. J. Hydrol. Eng. 15 (6), 395-403.
    • Voyde, E., Fassman, E., Simcock, R., 2010b. Hydrology of an extensive living roof under sub-tropical climate conditions in Auckland, New Zealand. J. Hydrol. 394 (3-4), 384-395.
    • Whittinghill, L.J., Rowe, D.B., Andresen, J.A., Cregg, B.M., 2015. Comparison of stormwater runoff from sedum, native prairie, and vegetable producing green roofs. Urban Ecosyst. 18 (1), 13-29.
    • Wolf, D., Lundholm, J.T., 2008. Water uptake in green roof microcosms: effects of plant species and water availability. Ecol. Eng. 33, 179-186.
    • Woods-Ballard, B., Kellagher, R., Martin, P., Jefferies, C., Bray, R., Shaffer, P., 2007. The SUDS Manual. CIRIA C697, London.
    • Yio, M.H.N., Stovin, V., Werdin, J., Vesuviano, G., 2013. Experimental analysis of green roof detention characteristics. Water Sci. Technol. 68 (7), 1477-1486.
    • Young, P., Jakeman, A., McMurtie, R., 1980. An instrument variable method for model order identification. Automatica 16, 281-294.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects


Cite this article

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok