Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Douglas, Laura; Szatkowski, Lisa (2013)
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal: BMC Public Health
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Research Article, Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Background\ud Smoking prevalence is particularly high amongst more deprived social groups. This cross-sectional study uses the Mosaic classification to explore socioeconomic variations in the delivery and/or uptake of cessation interventions in UK primary care.\ud \ud Methods\ud Data from 460,938 smokers registered in The Health Improvement Network between 2008 and 2010 were analysed. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for smokers having a record of receiving cessation advice or a prescription for a cessation medication during the study period by Townsend quintile and for each of the 11 Mosaic groups and 61 Mosaic types. Both of these measures are area-level indicators of deprivation. Profiles of Mosaic categories were used to suggest ways to target specific groups to increase the provision of cessation support.\ud \ud Results\ud Odds ratios for smokers having a record of advice or a prescription increased with increasing Townsend deprivation quintile. Similarly, smokers in more deprived Mosaic groups and types were more likely to have a documented cessation intervention. The odds of smokers receiving cessation advice if they have uncertain employment and live in social housing in deprived areas were 35% higher than the odds for successful professionals living in desirable areas (odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-1.52; absolute risks 57.2% and 50.1% respectively), and those in low-income families living in estate-based social housing were 50% more likely to receive a prescription than these successful professionals (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.31-1.73; absolute risks 19.5% and 13% respectively). Smokers who did not receive interventions were generally well educated, financially successful, married with no children, read broadsheet newspapers and had broadband internet access.\ud \ud Conclusions\ud Wide socioeconomic variations exist in the delivery and/or uptake of smoking cessation interventions in UK primary care, though encouragingly the direction of this variation may help to reduce smoking prevalence-related socioeconomic inequalities in health. Groups with particularly low intervention rates may be best targeted through broadsheet media, the internet and perhaps workplace-based interventions in order to increase the delivery and uptake of effective quit support.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Action on Smoking and Health: Smoking statistics: illness and death. London: Action on Smoking and Health; 2011.
    • 2. Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I: Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years' observations on male British doctors. Br Med J 2004, 328:1519.
    • 3. Action on Smoking and Health: Smoking and health inequalities. London: Action on Smoking and Health; 2005.
    • 4. Hiscock R, Bauld L, Amos A, Fidler JA, Munafò M: Socioeconomic status and smoking: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2012, 1248:107-123.
    • 5. Dunstan S: General lifestyle survey overview: a report on the 2010 general lifestyle survey. Newport: Office for National Statistics; 2012.
    • 6. Experian Ltd: Mosaic United Kingdom: the consumer classification for the UK. London: Experian Ltd; 2004.
    • 7. Sharma A, Lewis S, Szatkowski L: Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset. BMC Publ Health 2010, 10:755.
    • 8. Jarvis MJ, Wardle J: Social patterning of individual health behaviours: the case of cigarette smoking. In Social determinants of health. Edited by Marmot M, Wilkinson R. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006.
    • 9. Townsend P, Phillimore P, Beattie A: Health and deprivation: inequality and the North. London: Croom Helm; 1988.
    • 10. Giskes K, van Lenthe FJ, Turrell G, Brug J, Mackenbach JP: Smokers living in deprived areas are less likely to quit: a longitudinal follow-up. Tob Control 2006, 15:485-488.
    • 11. Honjo K, Tsutsumi A, Kawachi I, Kawakami N: What accounts for the relationship between social class and smoking cessation? Results of a path analysis. Soc Sci Med 2006, 62:317-328.
    • 12. Hiscock R, Judge K, Bauld L: Social inequalities in quitting smoking: what factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position and smoking cessation? J Public Health (Oxf ) 2011, 33:39-47.
    • 13. Edwards R, McElduff P, Jenner DF, Heller R, Langley J: Smoking, smoking cessation, and use of smoking cessation aids and support services in South Derbyshire, England. Public Health 2007, 121:321-332.
    • 14. Stead LF, Bergson G, Lancaster T: Physician advice for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database System Rev 2008(2). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000165. pub3. Art. No.:CD000165.
    • 15. Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Lancaster T: Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database System Rev 2008(1). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub3. Art. No.:CD000146.
    • 16. Hughes JR, Stead LF, Lancaster T: Antidepressants for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database System Rev 2007(1). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000031. pub3. Art. No.:CD000031.
    • 17. Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T: Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database System Rev 2008(3). doi:10.1002/ 14651858.CD006103.pub3. Art. No.:CD006103.
    • 18. Epidemiology and Pharmacology Information Core: THIN data. http:// csdmruk.cegedim.com/our-data/statistics.shtml (accessed 4 February 2103).
    • 19. Szatkowski L, Lewis S, McNeill A, Huang Y, Coleman T: Can data from primary care medical records be used to monitor national smoking prevalence? J Epidemiol Comm Health 2012, 66:791-795.
    • 20. Langley T, Szatkowski L, Gibson J, Huang Y, McNeill A, Coleman T, et al: Validation of The Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database for monitoring prescriptions for smoking cessation medications. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2010, 19:586-590.
    • 21. NHS Connecting for Health: Read codes. http://www.connectingforhealth. nhs.uk/systemsandservices/data/readcodes (accessed 4 February 2013).
    • 22. Joint Formulary Committee: British national formulary no. 63 (March 2012). London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press; 2012.
    • 23. Experian Ltd: Mosaic interactive guide. London: Experian Ltd; 2009.
    • 24. Murray RL, Coleman T, Antoniak M, Fergus A, Britton J, Lewis SA: The potential to improve ascertainment and intervention to reduce smoking in primary care: a cross sectional survey. BMC Health Serv Res 2008, 8:6.
    • 25. Tudor HJ: The inverse care Law. Lancet 1971, 297:405-412.
    • 26. Judy Davis Marketing and Action on Smoking and Health: Nicotine replacement therapy UK market review. Oxford: ASH: Report commissioned for ASH; 2005.
    • 27. Office for National Statistics: General lifestyle sruvey - health tables 2009. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition = tcm%3A77-198839 (accessed 14 November 2012).
    • 28. Davies HTO, Crombie IK, Tavakoli M: When can odds ratios mislead? BMJ 1998, 316:989-991.
    • 29. Cahill K, Moher M, Lancaster T: Workplace interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database System Rev 2008(4). doi:10.1002/14651858. CD003440.pub3. Art. No.:CD003440.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article