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Mbaye, J. F. (2014)
Publisher: Routledge
Languages: English
Types: Part of book or chapter of book
Subjects: JC, M
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    • 1 For instance, Didier Awadi from the Positive Black Soul (Senegal) born in 1969 has just released a new album, Ma Révolution' (2012); Imhotep from IAM (France), and most of the members of his group were born in 1960 and just released their album 'Arts Martiens' (2013); also, GrandMaster Flash, Furious Five (USA) is born in 1958 and performed in London on 10 February 2011. Just to give an indication regarding the generation fiction and the unstable indication given by age, Priss'K, a pioneer female hip hop artist from Ivory Coast, is nicknamed the 'Vieille Mère du Hip Hop' ('Hip Hop Old Mama') and she was born in 1985!
    • 2 This approach thus allows a conception of Hip Hop as an 'ensemble of specificities', of singularities, in which each 'emergence' singularly appears, develops and stands out as another mondialised world of this ensemble
    • 3 Here, I draw on the contributions of A. Nouss, who introduces the concept of mondialisation, in contrast with 'globalisation'; the former refers to the human dimension of an inhabited world, while the latter refers to the concreteness of a soulless economic and material reality (Nouss 2005: 76)
    • 4 Various techniques of 'breakdancing' such as smurf, hype, double dutch, boogaloo.
    • 5 'Graffiti' and 'tags'
    • 6 Includes scratch and sampling techniques.
    • 7 Includes rap and human beatbox.
    • The Routledge Handbook on Cities of the Global South_BOOK.indb 410
    • 8 I recognise here the contribution of H. Osumare, who develops the concept of 'connective marginalities' (Osumare 2007: 61)
    • 9 Conscious Rap, Dirty South, Political Rap, East Coast, West Coast, Crunk, Midwest Rap, Hardcore Rap, Gangsta Rap, Jazz Rap, Street Rap, Mainstream Rap, Old School, Pimp Rap, Pop Rap… all of which are NOT mutually exclusive − for a glimpse into each genre, please refer to the following Wikipedia entry http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/List_of_hip_hop_genres.
    • 10 For an in-depth discussion of the role of DJ (Disk-Jockey) and of the MC (Master of Ceremony / Master of Composition), see J.F. Mbaye (2009: 297−8).
    • 11 Although the MC initially played a more entertaining role in this musical landscape where s/he was simply introducing the DJ to the crowd, I argue that the MC's part became predominant in the musical creation, evolving from 'Master of Ceremony' to 'Master of Composition'.
    • 12 This is an extract from Matador's track 'Hip Hop Attitude' from the album Vox Populi (2012). English translation by the author based on the initial transcription and translation from Wolof produced by the Africulturban's team.
    • 13 This album 'Présidents d'Afrique' is constructed around extracts of speeches given by Cheikh Anta Diop, Kwame Nkruma, Thomas Sankara, Patrice Lumumba, and with various references to Frantz Fanon, Aimé Césaire or Samory Touré.
    • 14 Italics in original text.
    • 15 Political expression in vocal music is of course not new, expressing either pro-establishment (national anthems) or anti-establishment (protest songs) messages.
    • 16 See, for instance, Awadi's tracks 'J'accuse' and 'Stoppez-les'.
    • 17 These are themes that Fou Malade and his collective 'Bat'haillons Blin-D' have especially favoured.
    • 18 These are themes especially favoured by the female hip hop artist Sista Fa, who actively participated in a documentary film 'Sarabah', which focused on female genital mutilation.
    • 19 See, for instance, Wa BMG 44's track 'Danger'.
    • 20 'Sénégalérienne' is an expression created by Xuman from the group Pee Froiss in a track entitled 'Gunman'; this term originally draws on the contraction of the adjective 'sénégalais' (Senegalese in French) and 'galère' (which simultaneously means 'galley' and 'pain').
    • 21 'Hip Hop Education' is a project developed by Matador's association Africulturban, through which hip hop artists intervene in primary schools in order to provide artistic activities (concerts, workshops, etc.) as well as to encourage, in partnerships with pupils and teachers, the amelioration of the studying conditions (cleaning up schools, lobbying for funding for better infrastructure).
    • 22 See http://www.banquemondiale.org/fr/country/senegal/overview, accessed 1 July 2013.
    • 23 See http://www.minfinances.sn/ppsir21.html, accessed 1 July 2013.
    • 24 Y'en A Marre means 'fed up' or 'enough is enough' in French.
    • 25 Set Setal means 'clean and make clean' in Wolof. It was a youth and local movement centred on the neighbourhood in opposition to national movements, the most spectacular expressions of which were wall frescoes, and with mbalax as its distinctive soundtrack. This movement was considered as a symbolic response to the tragic border dispute with neighbouring country, Mauritania in 1989.
    • 26 Boul Faalé means 'don't worry', 'never mind' in Wolof. It is the title of the first musical cassette released by the Senegalese hip hop pioneer group, Positive Black Soul in 1994, in which the group formulated a vehement discourse denouncing the corruption of the PS (Diouf 's political party) then in power.
    • 27 'Musical enterprises in Senegal', 2009, identif ied 13 fully equipped rehearsal rooms (both private and public), among which two belonged to hip hop artists, who had invested in this essential material for live performances.
    • 28 In Senegal, a quarter of the duplication units belong to hip hop entrepreneurs. One should note however, that they are primarily artisanal burning units rather than proper industrial duplication plants.
    • 29 I refer here to the brand 'Bull Doff 'created by the hip hop artist and choreographer, Baay Sooley.
    • 30 Positive Black Soul, for instance, would regularly call upon young people of their neighbourhood to be the security during their performances. While these young people used to hanging around in the streets became members of this group's crew occupying the 'function' of bodyguards, after ten years of 'informal' practice, they officially created their bodyguard agency − Delta Force − that is now linked to the Studio Sankara.
    • 31 For each release of an album, in Senegal, one needs to declare to the Copyrights Bureau (BSDA) the number of copies to be placed on the market, and to pay the rights for mechanical reproduction through the payment of stamps for each copy.
    • 32 See http://p2pfoundation.net/4.1.C_Peer_Governance_a_a_third_mode_of_governance, accessed 1 July 2013.
    • The Routledge Handbook on Cities of the Global South_BOOK.indb 411
    • 33 Gabao Hip Hop Festival (Gabon); Waga Hip Hop Festival (Burkina Faso); Hip Hop Kankpe Festival (Benin); Assallamalekoum Festival (Mauritania); Hip Hop Awards (Senegal); Festival Festa'2H. (Senegal); Togo Hip Hop Awards (Togo); Guinean Africa Rap Festival (Guinea-Conakry); Hip Hop Wassa Festival (Niger); Mali Hip Hop Awards (Mali); but also in non-Francophone countries: Big Up GB − Movimento Hip Hop Festival (Guinea-Bissao); Hi-Life Festival (Ghana).
    • 34 Interview published by the Senegalese Press Agency, APS. Les '72 Heures Hip Hop', événement fédérateur du mouvement (organisateur).
    • The Routledge Handbook on Cities of the Global South_BOOK.indb 412
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