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Villegas-Aristizabal, Lucas (2007)
Languages: English
Types: Unknown
Subjects:
This thesis covers the Norman and Anglo-Norman contribution to the Iberian Reconquista from the early eleventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries. It explores the involvement of these groups as part of the changing ideas of Holy War and their transformation as result of the First Crusade. It shows that although the Reconquista was the result of important political and economic factors within the Iberian realms, the theological aura that the papacy started placing on this conflict was a powerful motivator increasing the interest of the Normans and later Anglo-Normans, especially when coincidental with the general call for crusade in western Europe that resulted in the large expeditions that are known to us as the crusades. To cover these areas, this work is divided in four main sections: the first, Chapter II, pursues chronologically the careers of individual members of the Norman nobility such as Roger of Tosny, Robert Crispin and Robert Burdet as they became involved. It also addresses the influence that institutions like Cluny and the papacy might have had in the creation of the idea of the Reconquista in the minds of those involved. The second section, Chapter III explores the brief decline of the Norman interest in the peninsula as a result of the Norman conquest of England and the First Crusade. It also explores the revitalization of the Norman interest in the peninsular conflict with the careers of Rotrou of Perche and Robert Burdet. Chapter IV, addresses the large contribution of the Anglo-Normans as part of the Second Crusade and their motivations and the impact of their arrival on the Iberian realms. Chapter V explores the participation of the lower aristocracy and merchants from the mid-twelfth century onwards in the coastal actions on both the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Iberia, showing the impact that these actions had in the Reconquista. Finally, Chapter VI explores how the changing political circumstances in Iberia and the Anglo-Norman domains helped to increase awareness during the rise of the Angevin empire and the newly found diplomatic relations between the two regions. However, it also shows that although by the thirteenth century the Reconquista was perceived as a legitimate area of crusading, the political and economic circumstances on the peninsula as well as of the English Crown had important repercussions for the drastic decline in the number of participants.
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    • Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 11 Historiography of the Reconquista and the Crusades ............................................................ 21 Historiography of the Anglo-Norman Involvement .................................................................. 22 'Reconquista', defining the term............................................................................................... 35 Defining 'Crusade' ..................................................................................................................... 38
    • Decline and revitalization of the Norman Participation in Iberia (1066-1157) ................. 101 The Norman Conquest of England ........................................................................................ 101 The First Crusade to the Holy Land (1095-1101) ................................................................. 103 The Return of the Normans .................................................................................................... 107 Rotrou of Perche and Robert Burdet in Aragon .................................................................... 108 Origins of Rotrou of Perche .................................................................................................... 109 Origins of Robert Burdet ......................................................................................................... 112 Robert Burdet's wives ............................................................................................................. 114 The extension of the crusading idea to Iberia ....................................................................... 115 Participation of Rotrou and Robert in Iberia .......................................................................... 124 Robert Burdet and the Principality of Tarragona .................................................................. 129 End of the independent Norman principality ......................................................................... 137
    • The Second Crusade: The Great Anglo-Norman Expeditions to Iberia (1147-1149) ..... 146 The Anglo-Norman domains under King Stephen. ............................................................... 147 The Lower Nobility and the Merchants .................................................................................. 150 The Promulgation of the Second Crusade ............................................................................ 155 The Promulgation of crusading indulgences In Spain .......................................................... 159 The Crusade of Lisbon............................................................................................................ 160 Portugal and the Reconquista ................................................................................................ 164 The First Anglo-Norman Intervention in the Reconquista in Portugal ................................. 166 Evaluation of the Sources for the Conquest and Settlement of Lisbon............................... 169
    • contacts between England and Iberia.................................................................................... 218 Henry II and the rise of the 'Angevin Empire'........................................................................ 219 The continuation of the Portuguese reconquest (1150-1217) ............................................. 226 Political disputes, alliance and contacts between England and Iberia. (1153-1216) ......... 252 The Anglo-Normans in the greatest phase of Reconquest (1212-1248) ............................ 267
    • Maps............................................................................................................................................. 325 Map of sea routes of the Second Crusade (Map 1).............................................................. 325 Map of the Territory of Tortosa with its corresponding villages (Map 2). ............................ 326 Map of the City of Tortosa 1150-1200 (Map 3). ................................................................... 327 Iberia 1000 AD (Map 4). ......................................................................................................... 328 Iberia c. 1170 AD (Map 5). ..................................................................................................... 328
    • 1175 Pere abbot of Santas Creus
    • November 12 gives to Dominico of Aldover and his son Trobad, honours over olive trees and others properties around Tortosa, that used to belong to Geoffrey Anglici. However there is a land which they sold to Gilbert his brother (Gilbert Anglici was a brother of Geoffrey?) which is obviously not included.
    • 1176 April 21 Joan de Pinca, for the salvation Peter Galeg of his soul donates to God and (Welsh?) to the Virgin Mary and to the knights Templar, an orchard located in Pempin in the territory of Tortosa. The orchard is contiguos to that of Peter Galeg (Welsh?).
    • 1178 May 29 Ramon of Zabadia and his wife Maria sell to the church of St. Mary's of Tortosa and to its sacristan, Nicholas, the honour that they had in Tamarit in the area of Tortosa.
    • 1179 January Ramon of Zaruvira and his wife Gerald of
    • 27 Ramona sell to Arnaldo of Arens Salvaniacho a land in Arens. (Salvagnac)
    • 1179 April 16 William of Salvaniaco William of (Salvagnac) and his wife Salvaniaco Jordana sell to St. Mary's of (Salavagnac), Tortosa two orchards of olive G[erald] of trees; one in Xerta and the other Salvaniaco in Matrona. They both used to (Salvagnac) belong before to Saracens.
    • 1181 June 5 Robert Alcaix exchange with Peter Galeg Berengario of Avinionis, Master (Welsh?) of the Military Order, and Pere of Auxor, Commander of the Order in Tortosa and the brothersd of the order, a land that they had in Algeri Mascor for another land own by the Templars and some currency.
    • 1184 January William of Salvanec (Salvagnac) William of
    • 28 and his wife Jordana donate to Salvanec the Templars an orchard in the (Salvagnac) Territory of Tortosa in the area called Xerta, William promisses to pay the order a tribut of a pitcher of Olive oil every year on christmas day.
    • 1187 July 30 Nicholas, sacristan of St. Mary's of Tortosa with the consent of Poncio, prior, gives Mahometo Alfanec for the duration of his life, an orchard which used to belong to Gerald Silvaniaco (Salvagnac) in Xerta. He supposed to give a fourth of its production to the church. The land is at the east of the honour that used to belong to Gilbert Anglici.
    • 1189 June 18 Berenguer Garidel an his wife Gerald of Geralda exchange with Poncio, Salvaniaco bishop of Tortosa some houses (Salvagnac) in Tortosa in the borough of Grassas for some lands in Labar.
    • 1190 March 1 Abbot Hugh of Santas Creus No clear bequeaths property of vineyards Anglothat John Anglico possess in Norman are Aldover and that had belonged mentioned as to Gilbert Anglici. witnesses.
    • 1191 April 28 After many controversies, by deposition of the Curia, the important men of Tortosa which included John Anglici, and the canons from one side and the brothers of the order of the Hospital for the other, reached an agreement over the distribution of the tenths over the whole of the territory of Tortosa.
    • 1199 Jenuary Petro of Pruneto prior of St
    • 15 Rufus of Ylerde, and Bertrandus canon of the place, exchange with Gombaldo Bishop of Tortosa and Poncio prior of the same church, an orchard that they have in Bitem, which had been owned by Osbert Angles, and the honors that they possess in Xerta which they had acquired from Berenguer Torrogio, for two vineyards the chapter dignitaries of Tortosa had in Pardinis Ylerde.
    • 1204 Ramona, who was the wife of
    • Februraury 4 Berenguer of Torta sells to Poncio, sacristan of St. Mary's of Tortosa, some houses that she had as census from himself outside the walls of Tortosa in the place know as Alfondico. The land of the house has on its western side the lands that used to belong to William of Salviniacho (Salvagnac).
    • Roland Morlans: Direct reference to him: 32.
    • Rotrou of Perche: Direct reference to him: 2, 6, 18. Witness/signatory: 2, 25. Reference to him or his lands: 7-13, 15, 17, 31.
    • William Anglici: Direct reference to him: 153, 166. Reference to him or his lands: 158.
    • William of Salvagnac, brother of Gerald Salvaganc: Direct reference to him: 76, 162, 189, 198 Witness/signatory: 76, 81, 126, 147, 148, 160-162, 189, 198, 206, 212, 214, 218. Reference to him or his lands: 126, 169, 211, 216, 220.
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