Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Penson, P; Ford, WR; Broadley, KJ
Publisher: Elsevier
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: RS, RM
Adrenaline (epinephrine) has been used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) since 1896. The rationale behind its use is thought to be its alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated peripheral vasoconstriction, causing residual blood flow to be diverted to coronary and cerebral circulations. This protects these tissues from ischaemic damage and increases the likelihood of restoration of spontaneous circulation. Clinical trials have not demonstrated any benefit of adrenaline over placebo as an agent for resuscitation. Adrenaline has deleterious effects in the setting of resuscitation, predictable from its promiscuous pharmacological profile. This article discusses the relevant pharmacology of adrenaline in the context of CPR. Experimental and clinical evidences for the use of adrenaline and alternative vasopressor agents in resuscitation are given, and the properties of an ideal vasopressor are discussed.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 4.1 Selective α-adrenoceptor agonists ...............................................................27 4.2 Directing endogenous and administered adrenaline towards α2- adrenoceptors with antagonists. ...............................................................................29 4.3 Non adrenergic vasopressor agents..............................................................30 4.4 Ideal properties of resuscitation vasopressor ...............................................31 4.5 General effects of vasopressors which may limit usefulness during resuscitation .............................................................................................................32 Abbs, E. T., Broadley, K. J. and Roberts, D. J. (1967). Inhibition of catechol-o-methyl transferase by some acid degradation products of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Biochem Pharmacol 16: 279-282.
    • Ahlquist, R. P. (1948). A study of adrenotropic receptors. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 153: 586-600.
    • American Heart Association (2005). 2005 American heart association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care: Part 7.2: Management of Cardiac Arrest. Circulation Journal 112: IV-58-66.
    • Andreka, P. and Frenneaux, M. P. (2006). Haemodynamics of cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Curr Opin Crit Care 12 (3): 198-203.
    • Awan, M. M., Taunyane, C., Aitchison, K. A., Yellon, D. M. and Opie, L. H. (1999). Normothermic Transfer Times up to 3 Min Will Not Precondition the Isolated Rat Heart. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 31 (3): 503-511 Babbs, C. F., Berg, R. A., Kette, F., Kloeck, W. G., Lindner, K. H., Lurie, K. G., Morley, P. T., Nadkarni, V. M., Otto, C. W., Paradis, N. A., Perlman, J., Stiell, I., Timerman, A., Van Reempts, P. and Wenzel, V. (2001). Use of pressors in the treatment of cardiac arrest. Annals of Emergency Medicine 37 (4 Suppl): S152-162.
    • Barton, C. and Callaham, M. (1991). High-Dose Epinephrine Improves the Return of Spontaneous Circulation Rates in Human Victims of Cardiac-Arrest. Annals of Emergency Medicine 20 (7): 722-725.
    • Beers, M. H. and Berkow, R. (1999a). Electric injury M. H. Beers and R. Berkow. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy 2441-2443 Whitehouse Station, N.J., Merck Research Laboratories
    • Beers, M. H. and Berkow, R. (1999b). Water, electrolyte, mineral, and acid-base metabolism M. H. Beers and R. Berkow. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy 120-164 Whitehouse Station, N.J., Merck Research Laboratories Beers, M. H. and Berkow, R. (1999c). Cardiac and respiratory arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation M. H. Beers and R. Berkow. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy 1740-1753 Whitehouse Station, N.J., Merck Research Laboratories
    • Behonick, G. S., Novak, M. J., Nealley, E. W. and Baskin, S. I. (2001). Toxicology update: the cardiotoxicity of the oxidative stress metabolites of catecholamines (aminochromes). J Appl Toxicol 21 Suppl 1: S15-22.
    • Behringer, W., Kittler, H., Sterz, F., Domanovits, H., Schoerkhuber, W., Holzer, M., Mullner, M. and Laggner, A. N. (1998). Cumulative epinephrine dose during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and neurologic outcome. Ann Intern Med 129 (6): 450-456.
    • Bindoli, A., Rigobello, M. P. and Deeble, D. J. (1992). Biochemical and toxicological properties of the oxidation products of catecholamines. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 13 (4): 391-405.
    • Blancke, F., Claeys, M. J., Jorens, P., Vermeiren, G., Bosmans, J., Wuyts, F. L. and Vrints, C. J. (2005). Systemic inflammation and reperfusion injury in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Mediators of Inflammation (6): 385-389.
    • Braunwald, E. and Kloner, R. A. (1985). Myocardial reperfusion: A double-edged sword? Journal of Clinical Investigation 76 (5): 1713-1719.
    • Brembilla-Perrot, W., Miljoen, H., Houriez, P., Beurrier, D., Nippert, M., Vancon, A. C., de la Chaise, A. T., Louis, P., Mock, L., Sadoul, N. and Andronache, M. (2003). Causes and prognosis of cardiac arrest in a population admitted to a general hospital; a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Resuscitation 58 (3): 319-327.
    • Broadley, K. J. and Penson, P. E. (2004). The roles of α- and β-adrenoceptor stimulation in myocardial ischaemia. Auton Autacoid Pharmacol 24 (4): 87- 93.
    • Broadley, K. J., Williamson, K. L. and Roach, A. G. (1999). In vivo demonstration of α-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropy in pithed rats: evidence that noradrenaline does not stimulate myocardial α-adrenoceptors. Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology 19: 55-63.
    • Brown, C. G. and Werman, H. A. (1990). Adrenergic agonists during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 19 (1): 1-16.
    • Brown, C. G., Taylor, R. B., Werman, H. A., Luu, T., Spittler, G. and Hamlin, R. L. (1988). Effect of Standard Doses of Epinephrine on Myocardial Oxygen Delivery and Utilization during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Critical Care Medicine 16 (5): 536-539.
    • Brown, C. G., Martin, D. R., Pepe, P. E., Stueven, H., Cummins, R. O., Gonzalez, E. and Jastremski, M. (1992). A Comparison of Standard-Dose and High-Dose Epinephrine in Cardiac-Arrest Outside the Hospital. New England Journal of Medicine 327 (15): 1051-1055.
    • Callaham, M., Barton, C. W. and Kayser, S. (1991). Potential Complications of HighDose Epinephrine Therapy in Patients Resuscitated from Cardiac-Arrest. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association 265 (9): 1117-1122.
    • Callaham, M., Madsen, C. D., Barton, C. W., Saunders, C. E. and Pointer, J. (1992). A Randomized Clinical-Trial of High-Dose Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Vs Standard-Dose Epinephrine in Prehospital Cardiac-Arrest. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association 268 (19): 2667-2672.
    • Cameron, H. A. and Ardlie, N. G. (1982). The facilitating effects of adrenaline on platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Medicine 9 (1): 117- 128.
    • Camm, A. J. (2002). Cardiovascular disease P. Kumar and M. Clark. Clinical Medicine 701-832 London, W.B. Saunders.
    • Carden, D. L. and Granger, D. N. (2000). Pathophysiology of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Journal of Pathology 190 (3): 255-266.
    • Cartwright, M. S. and Reynolds, P. S. (2005). Intracerebral hemorrhage associated with over-the-counter inhaled epinephrine Cerebrovascular Diseases 19 (6): 415-416.
    • Chilian, W. M. (1991). Functional distribution of α1- and α2-adrenergic receptors in the coronary microcirculation. Circulation 84 (5): 2108-2022.
    • Choudhary, H. R., Jain, R. and Arora, H. (1999). Adrenaline precipitated intracerebral hemorrhage. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 47 (5): 562.
    • Cooper, S., Janghorbani, M. and Cooper, G. (2006). A decade of in-hospital resuscitation: Outcomes and prediction of survival? Resuscitation 68 (2): 231- 237.
    • Crile, G. and Dolley, D. (1906). An experimental research into the resuscitation of dogs killed by anaesthetics and asphyxia. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 8 (713-725)
    • Dahlgren, N., Rosen, I., Sakabe, T. and Siesjo, B. K. (1980). Cerebral functional, metabolic and circulatory effects of intravenous-infusion of adrenaline in the rat. Brain Research 184 (1): 143-152.
    • DeBehnke, D. (2000). The effects of graded doses of endothelin-1 on coronary perfusion pressure and vital organ blood flow during cardiac arrest. Acad Emerg Med 7 (3): 211-221.
    • DeBehnke, D. J. and Benson, L. (2000). Effects of endothelin-1 on resuscitation rate during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 47 (2): 185-189.
    • DeBehnke, D. J., Spreng, D., Wickman, L. L. and Crowe, D. T. (1996). The effects of endothelin-1 on coronary perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a canine model. Acad Emerg Med 3 (2): 137-141.
    • Dhalla, N. S., Yates, J. C., Lee, S. L. and Singh, A. (1978). Functional and subcellular changes in the isolated rat heart perfused with oxidised isoproterenol. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 10: 31-41.
    • Ditchey, R. V. and Lindenfeld, J. (1988). Failure of epinephrine to improve the balance between myocardial oxygen-supply and demand during closed-chest resuscitation in dogs. Circulation 78 (2): 382-389.
    • Duka, I., Gavras, I., Johns, C., Handy, D. E. and Gavras, H. (2000). Role of the postsynaptic α2-adrenergic receptor subtypes in catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction. General Pharmacology 34 (2): 101-106.
    • Engdahl, J., Bang, A., Karlson, B. W., Lindqvist, J. and Herlitz, J. (2003). Characteristics and outcome among patients suffering from out of hospital cardiac arrest of non-cardiac aetiology. Resuscitation 57 (1): 33-41.
    • Fang, X. S., Tang, W. C., Sun, S. J., Huang, L., Chang, Y. T., Huang, Z. T. and Weil, M. H. (2006). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rat model of chronic myocardial ischemia. Journal of Applied Physiology 101 (4): 1091-1096.
    • Feuerstein, G., Yue, T.-L., Cheng, H.-Y., Hieble, J. P., Arch, J. R. S., Ruffolo Jr., R. R., Liu, G.-L. and Ma, X.-L. (1998). Comparison of metoprolol and carvedilol pharmacology and cardioprotection in rabbit ischemia and reperfusion model. European Journal of Pharmacology 351 (3): 341-350.
    • Fischer, M., Fischer, N. J. and Schuttler, J. (1997). One-year survival after out-ofhospital cardiac arrest in Bonn city: Outcome report according to the 'Utstein style'. Resuscitation 33 (3): 233-243.
    • Foley, P. J., Tacker, W. A., Wortsman, J., Frank, S. and Cryer, P. E. (1987). Plasma catecholamine and serum cortisol responses to experimental cardiac arrest in dogs. Am J Physiol 253 (3 Pt 1): E283-289.
    • Fujita, M. and Tambara, K. (2004). Recent insights into human coronary collateral development. Heart 90 (3): 246-250.
    • Ganong, W. F. (2001). Review of medical physiology. New York, Lange Medical.
    • Gao, F., Chen, J., Lopez, B. L., Christopher, T. A., Gu, J., Lysko, P., Ruffolo, R. R., Jr., Ohlstein, E. H., Ma, X. L. and Yue, T. L. (2000). Comparison of bisoprolol and carvedilol cardioprotection in a rabbit ischemia and reperfusion model. Eur J Pharmacol 406 (1): 109-116.
    • Gonzalez, E. R., Ornato, J. P., Garnett, A. R., Levine, R. L., Young, D. S. and Racht, E. M. (1989). Dose-dependent vasopressor response to epinephrine during CPR in human beings. Annals of Emergency Medicine 18 (9): 920-926.
    • Gottlieb, R. (1896). Ueber die Wirkung der Nebennierenextracte auf herz und blutdruk. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 38: 99-112.
    • Green, D. E. and Richter, D. (1937). Adrenaline and Adrenochrome. Biochem. J. 31: 596-616.
    • Gregorini, L., Marco, J., Kozakova, M., Palombo, C., Anguissola, G. B., Marco, I., Bernies, M., Cassagneau, B., Distante, A., Bossi, I. M., Fajadet, J. and Heusch, G. (1999). α -adrenergic blockade improves recovery of myocardial perfusion and function after coronary stenting in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 99 (4): 482-490.
    • Gregorini, L., Marco, J., Farah, B., Bernies, M., Palombo, C., Kozakova, M., Bossi, I. M., Cassagneau, B., Fajadet, J., Di Mario, C., Albiero, R., Cugno, M., Grossi, A. and Heusch, G. (2002). Effects of selective α1- and α2-adrenergic blockade on coronary flow reserve after coronary stenting. Circulation 106 (23): 2901- 2907.
    • Gross, E. R. and Gross, G. J. (2006). Ligand triggers of classical preconditioning and postconditioning. Cardiovasc Res 70 (2): 212-221.
    • Grubb, N. R., Elton, R. A. and Fox, K. A. A. (1995). In-Hospital Mortality after outof-Hospital Cardiac-Arrest. Lancet 346 (8972): 417-421.
    • Gueugniaud, P. Y., Mols, P., Goldstein, P., Pham, E., Dubien, P. Y., Deweerdt, C., Vergnion, M., Petit, P. and Carli, P. (1998). A comparison of repeated high doses and repeated standard doses of epinephrine for cardiac arrest outside the hospital. New England Journal of Medicine 339 (22): 1595-1601.
    • Guimaraes, S. and Moura, D. (2001). Vascular adrenoceptors: an update. Pharmacol Rev 53 (2): 319-356.
    • Guyette, F. X., Guimond, G. E., Hostler, D. and Callaway, C. W. (2004). Vasopressin administered with epinephrine is associated with a return of a pulse in out-ofhospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 63 (3): 277-282.
    • Hearse, D. J. (2000). The elusive coypu: the importance of collateral flow and the search for an alternative to the dog. Cardiovasc Res 45 (1): 215-219.
    • Herlitz, J., Ekstrom, L., Wennerblom, B., Axelsson, A., Bang, A. and Holmberg, S. (1995). Adrenaline in out-of-Hospital Ventricular-Fibrillation - Does It Make Any Difference. Resuscitation 29 (3): 195-201.
    • Hermreck, A. S. (1988). The History of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. American Journal of Surgery 156 (6): 430-436.
    • Hess, E. P., Campbell, R. L. and White, R. D. (2007). Epidemiology, trends, and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of non-cardiac origin. Resuscitation 72 (2): 200-206.
    • Heyndrickx, G. R., Millard, R. W. and McRitchie, R. J. (1975). Regional myocardial functional and electrophysiological alterations after brief coronary artery occlusion in conscious dogs. Journal of Clinical Investigation 56 (4): 978- 985.
    • Hieble, J. P. (2000). Adrenoceptor subclassification:an approach to improved cardiovascular therapeutics. Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae 74: 163-171.
    • Hilwig, R. W., Kern, K. B., Berg, R. A., Sanders, A. B., Otto, C. W. and Ewy, G. A. (2000). Catecholamines in cardiac arrest: Role of α-agonists, β - adrenergic blockers and high-dose epinephrine. Resuscitation 47 (2): 203-208.
    • Hoffman, B. B. (2001). Catecholamines, sympathomimetic drugs and adrenergic receptor antagonists J. G. Hardman, L. E. Limbird and A. G. Gilman. Goodman & Gilman's The pharmacological basis of therapeutics 215-268 London, McGraw-Hill.
    • Hoffman, B. B. and Taylor, P. (2001). Neurotransmission, The autonomic and somatic nervous systems. J. G. Hardman, L. E. Limbird and A. G. Gilman. Goodman & Gilman's The pharmacological basis of therapeutics 115-153 London, McGraw-Hill.
    • Holmberg, M., Holmberg, S. and Herlitz, J. (2002). Low chance of survival among patients requiring adrenaline (epinephrine) or intubation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden. Resuscitation 54 (1): 37-45.
    • Hornchen, U., Lussi, C. and Schuttler, J. (1993). Potential risks of high-dose epinephrine for resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation in a porcine model. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 7 (2): 184-187.
    • Huang, L., Sun, S. J., Fang, X. S., Tang, W. C. and Weil, M. H. (2006). Simultaneous blockade of α1- and β-actions of epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Critical Care Medicine 34 (12): S483-S485.
    • International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (2005). Part 4: Advanced life support. Resuscitation 67 (2-3): 213-247
    • Jarajapu, Y. P. R., Coats, P., McGrath, J. C., MacDonald, A. and Hillier, C. (2001). Increased α 1- and α 2-adrenoceptor-mediated contractile responses of human skeletal muscle resistance arteries in chronic limb ischemia. Cardiovasc Res 49 (1): 218-225.
    • Johansson, J., Gedeborg, R. and Rubertsson, S. (2004). Vasopressin versus continuous adrenaline during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 62 (1): 61-69.
    • Kanagy, N. L. (2005). α 2-adrenergic receptor signalling in hypertension. Clinical Science 109: 431-437.
    • Karch, S. B. (1989). Coronary artery spasm induced by intravenous epinephrine overdose. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 7 (5): 485-488.
    • Kern, K. B., Ewy, G. A., Voorhees, W. D., Babbs, C. F. and Tacker, W. A. (1988). Myocardial perfusion pressure: A predictor of 24-hour survival during prolonged cardiac arrest in dogs. Resuscitation 16 (4): 241-250.
    • Kern, K. B., Elchisak, M. A., Sanders, A. B., Badylak, S. F., Tacker, W. A. and Ewy, G. A. (1989). Plasma catecholamines and resuscitation from prolonged cardiac arrest. Critical Care Medicine 17 (8): 786-791.
    • Kilgore, K. S., Tanhehco, E. J., Naylor, K. B. and Lucchesi, B. R. (1999). Ex vivo reversal of heparin-mediated cardioprotection by heparinase after ischemia and reperfusion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 290 (3): 1041-1047.
    • Klouche, K., Weil, M. H., Sun, S., Tang, W. and Zhao, D. H. (2003). A comparison of α -methylnorepinephrine, vasopressin and epinephrine for cardiac resuscitation. Resuscitation 57 (1): 93-100.
    • Kolarova, J., Yi, Z., Ayoub, I. M. and Gazmuri, R. J. (2005). Cariporide potentiates the effects of epinephrine and vasopressin by nonvascular mechanisms during closed-chest resuscitation. Chest 127 (4): 1327-1334.
    • Kuisma, M. and Alaspaa, A. (1997). Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of non-cardiac origin - Epidemiology and outcome. European Heart Journal 18 (7): 1122- 1128.
    • Kwon, O., Chung, S., Lee, K. and Kim, S. (2007). Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage after intravenous epinephrine use for multiple bee stings. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 25 (2): 249-250.
    • LaBruno, S., Naim, K. L., Li, J. K., Drzewiecki, G. and Kedem, J. (1998). β - adrenergic stimulation of reperfused myocardium after 2-hour ischemia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 32 (4): 535-542.
    • Landzberg, J. S., Parker, J. D., Gauthier, D. F. and Colucci, W. S. (1991). Effects of myocardial α1-adrenergic receptor stimulation and blockade on contractility in humans. Circulation 84 (4): 1608-1614.
    • Lazzarino, G., Raatikainen, P., Nuutinen, M., Nissinen, J., Tavazzi, B., Di Pierro, D., Giardina, B. and Peuhkurinen, K. (1994). Myocardial release of malondialdehyde and purine compounds during coronary bypass surgery. Circulation 90 (1): 291-297.
    • Lee, S., Harris, N. D., Robinson, R. T., Yeoh, L., Macdonald, I. A. and Heller, S. R. (2003). Effects of adrenaline and potassium on QTc interval and QT dispersion in man. Eur J Clin Invest 33 (2): 93-98.
    • Levick, J.R. (2003) An introduction to cardiovascular physiology. London. Hodder Arnold
    • Lichtenstein, S. V., El-Dalati, H., Panos, A., Rice, T. W. and Salerno, T. A. (1987). Systemic vascular effects of epinephrine administration in man. Journal of Surgical Research 42 (2): 166.
    • Lilja, G. P., Long, R. S. and Ruiz, E. (1981). Augmentation of systolic blood pressure during external cardiac compression by use of the MAST suit. Annals of Emergency Medicine 10 (4): 182-184.
    • Lindner, K. H., Ahnefeld, F. W. and Prengel, A. W. (1991a). Comparison of Standard and High-Dose Adrenaline in the Resuscitation of Asystole and Electromechanical Dissociation. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 35 (3): 253-256.
    • Lindner, K. H., Ahnefeld, F. W. and Bowdler, I. M. (1991b). Comparison of Different Doses of Epinephrine on Myocardial Perfusion and Resuscitation Success during Cardiopulmonary-Resuscitation in a Pig Model. American Journal of Emergency Medicine 9 (1): 27-31.
    • Lindner, K. H., Haak, T., Keller, A., Bothner, U. and Lurie, K. G. (1996a). Release of endogenous vasopressors during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Heart 75 (2): 145-150.
    • Lindner, K. H., Prengel, A. W., Brinkmann, A., Strohmenger, H. U., Lindner, I. M. and Lurie, K. G. (1996b). Vasopressin administration in refractory cardiac arrest. Annals of Internal Medicine 124 (12): 1061-1064.
    • Lindner, K. H., Dirks, B., Strohmenger, H. U., Prengel, A. W., Lindner, I. M. and Lurie, K. G. (1997). Randomised comparison of epinephrine and vasopressin in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Lancet 349 (9051): 535-537.
    • Lipman, J., Wilson, W., Kobilski, S., Scribante, J., Lee, C., Kraus, P., Cooper, J., Barr, J. and Moyes, D. (1993). High-Dose Adrenaline in Adult in-Hospital Asystolic Cardiopulmonary-Resuscitation - a Double-Blind Randomized Trial. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 21 (2): 192-196.
    • Livesay, J. J., Follette, D. M., Fey, K. H., Nelson, R. L., DeLand, E. C., Barnard, R. J. and Buckberg, G. D. (1978). Optimizing myocardial supply/demand balance with α -adrenergic drugs during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 76 (2): 244-251.
    • Martinez, M. A., Fernandez, N., Garcia-Villalon, A. L., Monge, L. and Dieguez, G. (2003). Comparison of the in vivo coronary action of endothelin-1 and vasopressin role of nitric oxide and prostanoids. Vascul Pharmacol 40 (5): 247-252.
    • Marwick, T. H., Case, C., Siskind, V. and Woodhouse, S. P. (1988). Adverse effect of early high-dose adrenaline on outcome of ventricular fibrillation. Lancet 2 (8602): 66-68.
    • Mayer, B. and Schunkert, H. (2007). The higher, the better? Blood pressure after acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Hypertension 25 (2): 273-274.
    • McGrath, J. C. (1982). Evidence for more than one type of post-junctional α - adrenoceptor. Biochem Pharmacol 31 (4): 467-484.
    • Mehta, D., Ed. (2006). British National Formulary. London, The British Medical Association and The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain Melo, L. G., Gnecchi, M., Pachori, A. S., Kong, D., Wang, K., Liu, X., Pratt, R. E. and Dzau, V. J. (2004). Endothelium-targeted gene and cell-based therapies for cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, And Vascular Biology 24 (10): 1761.
    • Michael, J. R., Guerci, A. D., Koehler, R. C., Shi, A. Y., Tsitlik, J., Chandra, N., Niedermeyer, E., Rogers, M. C., Traystman, R. J. and Weisfeldt, M. L. (1984). Mechanisms by which epinephrine augments cerebral and myocardial perfusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dogs. Circulation 69 (4): 822-835.
    • Moens, A. L., Claeys, M. J., Timmermans, J. P. and Vrints, C. J. (2005). Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-injury, a clinical view on a complex pathophysiological process. International Journal of Cardiology 100 (2): 179-190
    • Monteiro, P., Duarte, A. I., Moreno, A., Goncalves, L. M. and Providencia, L. A. (2003). Carvedilol improves energy production during acute global myocardial ischaemia. Eur J Pharmacol 482 (1-3): 245-253.
    • Morris, D. C., Dereczyk, B. E., Grzybowski, M., Martin, G. B., Rivers, E. P., Wortsman, J. and Amico, J. A. (1997). Vasopressin can increase coronary perfusion pressure during human cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Academic Emergency Medicine 4 (9): 878-883.
    • Murry, C. E., Jennings, R. B. and Reimer, K. A. (1986). Preconditioning with ischemia: A delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium. Circulation 74 (5): 1124-1136.
    • Nielsen, H., Hasenkam, J. M., Pilegaard, H. K., Mortensen, F. V. and Mulvany, M. J. (1991). α -adrenoceptors in human resistance arteries from colon, pericardial fat, and skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology 261 (3 ): H762-H767.
    • Niemann, J. T. and Garner, D. (2005). Post-resuscitation plasma catecholamines after prolonged arrest in a swine model. Resuscitation 65 (1): 97-101.
    • Nolan, J. P., Hazinski, M. F., Steen, P. A. and Becker, L. B. (2005). Controversial Topics from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 67 (2-3): 175-179.
    • Olson, D. W., Thakur, R., Stueven, H. A., Thompson, B., Gruchow, H., Hendley, G. E., Hargarten, K. M. and Aprahamian, C. (1989). Randomized Study of Epinephrine Versus Methoxamine in Prehospital Ventricular-Fibrillation. Annals of Emergency Medicine 18 (3): 250-253.
    • Paradis, N. A., Martin, G. B., Rivers, E. P., Goetting, M. G., Appleton, T. J., Feingold, M. and Nowak, R. M. (1990). Coronary perfusion pressure and the return of spontaneous circulation in human cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Journal of the American Medical Association 263 (8): 1106-1113.
    • Paradis, N. A., Martin, G. B., Rosenberg, J., Rivers, E. P., Goetting, M. G., Appleton, T. J., Feingold, M., Cryer, P. E., Wortsman, J. and Nowak, R. M. (1991). The effect of standard- and high-dose epinephrine on coronary perfusion pressure during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. JAMA 265 (9): 1139-1144.
    • Parikh, V. and Singh, M. (1999). Possible role of adrenergic component and cardiac mast cell degranulation in preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Pharmacological Research 40 (2): 129-137.
    • Pearson, J. W. and Redding, J. S. (1963). Epinephrine in cardiac resuscitation. American Heart Journal 66 (2): 210-214.
    • Pearson, J. W. and Redding, J. S. (1964a). Management of cardiac arrest. The Lancet 283 (7331): 492-493.
    • Pearson, J. W. and Redding, J. S. (1964b). Cardiac arrest and adrenaline. The Lancet 283 (7339): 935.
    • Pellis, T., Weil, M. H., Tang, W., Sun, S., Xie, J., Song, L. and Checchia, P. (2003). Evidence favoring the use of an α2-selective vasopressor agent for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 108 (21): 2716-2721.
    • Pentel, P. and Benowitz, N. (1984). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations in drug therapy of cardiac emergencies. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 9 (4): 273-308.
    • Piper, H. M., Abdallah, Y. and Schafer, C. (2004). The first minutes of reperfusion: a window of opportunity for cardioprotection. Cardiovasc Res 61 (3): 365-371.
    • Poullis, D. M. (2000). Repeated administration of vasopressin but not epinephrine maintains coronary perfusion pressure after early and late administration during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs. Circulation 101 (16): E174-E175.
    • Roberts, D., Landolfo, K., Dobson, K. and Light, R. B. (1990). The effects of methoxamine and epinephrine on survival and regional distribution of cardiac output in dogs with prolonged ventricular fibrillation. Chest 98 (4): 999-1005.
    • Roberts, R. E., Tomlinson, A. E., Kendall, D. A. and Wilson, V. G. (1998). α2- adrenoceptor-mediated contractions of the porcine isolated ear artery: evidence for a cyclic AMP-dependent and a cyclic AMP-independent mechanism. British Journal of Pharmacology 124 (6): 1107.
    • Roffey, P., Thangathurai, D., Mikhail, M. and Shoemaker, W. (2003). Implication of epinephrine-induced hypokalemia during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 58 (2): 231.
    • Sapienza, P., Edwards, J. D., Mingoli, A., McGregor, P. E., Cavallari, N. and Agrawal, D. K. (1996). Ischemia-Induced Peripheral Arterial Vasospasm Role of α1- and α2-Adrenoceptors. Journal of Surgical Research 62 (2): 192-196.
    • Schafers, R. F., Nurnberger, J., Herrmann, B., Wenzel, R. R., Philipp, T. and Michel, M. C. (1999). Adrenoceptors mediating the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of α -methylnoradrenaline in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 289 (2): 918-925.
    • Schoemig, A. and Richard, G. (1991). Cardiac sympathetic activity in myocardial ischemia: Release and effects of noradrenaline. G. Heusch and J. Ross. Adrenergic mechanisms in myocardial ischemia 9-30 Darmstadt, Steinkopff Verlag.
    • Schwartz, L. M. and Lagranha, C. J. (2006). Ischemic postconditioning during reperfusion activates Akt and ERK without protecting against lethal myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in pigs. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 290 (3): H1011-H1018.
    • Shah, B. H., Lashari, I., Rana, S., Saeed, O., Rasheed, H. and Arshad Saeed, S. (2000). Synergistic interaction of adrenaline and histamine in human platelet aggregation is mediated through activation of phospholipase, map kinase and cyclo-oxygenase pathways. Pharmacological Research 42 (5): 479-483.
    • Sherman, B. W., Munger, M. A., Foulke, G. E., Rutherford, W. F. and Panacek, E. A. (1997). High-dose versus standard-dose epinephrine treatment of cardiac arrest after failure of standard therapy. Pharmacotherapy 17 (2): 242-247.
    • Sternbach, G. (1984). George W. Crile: the pneumatic rubber suit. The Journal of emergency medicine 1 (5): 439-442.
    • Stiell, I. G., Hebert, P. C., Weitzman, B. N., Wells, G. A., Raman, S., Stark, R. M., Higginson, L. A. J., Ahuja, J. and Dickinson, G. E. (1992). High-Dose Epinephrine in Adult Cardiac-Arrest. New England Journal of Medicine 327 (15): 1045-1050.
    • Stiell, I. G., Hebert, P. C., Wells, G. A., Vandemheen, K. L., Tang, A. S. L., Higginson, L. A. J., Dreyer, J. F., Clement, C., Battram, E., Watpool, I., Mason, S., Klassen, T. and Weitzman, B. N. (2001). Vasopressin versus epinephrine for inhospital cardiac arrest: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 358 (9276): 105-109.
    • Sun, S., Weil, M. H., Tang, W., Kamohara, T. and Klouche, K. (2001). α - Methylnorepinephrine, a selective α2-adrenergic agonist for cardiac resuscitation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 37 (3): 951-956.
    • Tang, W., Weil, M. H., Gazmuri, R. J., Sun, S., Duggal, C. and Bisera, J. (1991). Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion defects induced by epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 84 (5): 2101-2107.
    • Timmermans, P. B. M. W. M. and Van Zwieten, P. A. (1980). Postsynaptic α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in the circulatory system of the pithed rat: Selective stimulation of the α2-type by B-HT 933. European Journal of Pharmacology 63 (2-3): 199-202.
    • Tisi, P. V. and Shearman, C. P. (1999). Systemic consequences of reperfusion P. A. Grace and R. T. Mathie. Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury 20-30 Oxford, Blackwell Science Ltd.
    • Tovar, O. H. and Jones, J. L. (1997). Epinephrine Facilitates Cardiac Fibrillation by Shortening Action Potential Refractoriness. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 29 (5): 1447-1455.
    • Van Meel, J. C. A., De Jonge, A., Kalkman, H. O., Wilffert, B., Timmermans, P. B. M. W. M. and Van Zwieten, P. A. (1981). Vascular smooth muscle contraction initiated by postsynaptic α2-adrenoceptor activation is induced by an influx of extracellular calcium. European Journal of Pharmacology 69 (2): 205-208.
    • Voelckel, W. G., Lurie, K. G., Lindner, K. H., Zielinski, T., McKnite, S., Krismer, A. C. and Wenzel, V. (2000). Vasopressin improves survival after cardiac arrest in hypovolemic shock. Anesthesia and Analgesia 91 (3): 627-634.
    • Warren, E. T., Pass, H. I. and Crawford Jr, F. A. (1983). External cardiopulmonary resuscitation augmented by the military antishock trousers. American Surgeon 49 (12): 651-654.
    • Weber, N. C. and Schlack, W. (2005). The concept of anaesthetic-induced cardioprotection: mechanisms of action. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology 19 (3): 429-443.
    • Weisfeldt, M. L. and Becker, L. B. (2002). Resuscitation after cardiac arrest: A 3- phase time-sensitive model. Journal of the American Medical Association 288 (23): 3035-3038.
    • Wenzel, V., Lindner, K. H., Krismer, A. C., Miller, E. A., Voelckel, W. G. and Lingnau, W. (1999). Repeated administration of vasopressin but not epinephrine maintains coronary perfusion pressure after early and late administration during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs. Circulation 99 (10): 1379-1384.
    • Wenzel, V., Krismer, A. C., Arntz, H. R., Sitter, H., Stadlbauer, K. H., Lindner, K. H., Chamberlain, D. A., Dick, W. F., Bossaert, L. L., Bruyneel, P., Sitter, H., Prunte, H., Wenzel, V., Krismer, A. C., Stadlbauer, K. H., Mayr, V. D., Lienhart, H. G., Arntz, H. R., Breckwoldt, J., Baubin, M. A., Voelckel, W., Menges, M. M., Jenner, A., Prause, G., Kainz, J., Messelken, M., Roper, A., Bertschat, F. L., Burkle, G., Koberne, F., Bandemer, G., Callies, A., Schmitz, B., Schuttler, J., Wilde, T., Ellinger, K., Burfeind, S., Genzwurker, H. V., Koppenberg, J., Ebmeyer, U., Dirks, B., Lehle, B., Ummenhofer, W., Albrecht, R., Trimmel, H., Gaberszig, N., Beneker, J., Schlechtriemen, T., Altemeyer, K. H., Wauer, H., Geyer, T., Kleinschmidt, S., Wilhelm, W., Lauber, P., Cartarius, R., Bottiger, B. W., Bujard, M., Switalski, J., Hemicker, G., Lenz, R., Koster, J., Hahne, F. U., Edelhoff, G., Besmer, I., Tietze-Schnur, P., Fischer, L. and Poppelbaum, D. (2004). A comparison of vasopressin and epinephrine for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. New England Journal of Medicine 350 (2): 105-113.
    • Weston, C. F. M., Jones, S. D. and Wilson, R. J. (1997). Outcome of out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest in South Glamorgan. Resuscitation 34 (3): 227-233.
    • Williamson, K. L. and Broadley, K. J. (1989). Do both adrenaline and noradrenaline stimulate cardiac α -adrenoceptors to induce positive inotropy of rat atria? British Journal of Pharmacology 98 (2): 597-611.
    • Woodhouse, S. P., Cox, S., Boyd, P., Case, C. and Weber, M. (1995). High dose and standard dose adrenaline do not alter survival, compared with placebo, in cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 30 (3): 243-249.
    • Yap, Y. G., Duong, T., Bland, J. M., Malik, M., Torp-Pederson, C., Kober, L., Connolly, S. J., Gallagher, M. M. and Camm, A. J. (2007). Prognostic value of blood pressure measured during hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction: an insight from survival trials. Journal of Hypertension 25 (2): 307-313.
    • Yassin, M. M. I., Harkin, D. W., D'Sa, A. A. B. B., Halliday, M. I. and Rowlands, B. J. (2002). Lower limb ischemia-reperfusion injury triggers a systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ dysfunction. World Journal of Surgery 26 (1): 115-121.
    • Yates, J. C. and Dhalla, N. S. (1975). Induction of necrosis and failure in the isolated perfused rat heart with oxidised isoproterenol. Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 7: 807-816.
    • Yellon, D. M. and Downey, J. M. (2003). Preconditioning the myocardium: from cellular physiology to clinical cardiology. Physiological Reviews 83 (4): 1113-1151.
    • Zhong, J.-Q. and Dorian, P. (2005). Epinephrine and vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 66 (3): 263-269.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article