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Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Hamilton, James G. C.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Shaw, Jeffrey J. (2015)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Area, Q1, Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Diptera Psychodidae, Species Complex, Research Article, RC955-962, Sex-pheromone Attracts, RA1-1270, Field, Public aspects of medicine, Arctic medicine. Tropical medicine, Sandflies

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: parasitic diseases
BACKGROUND: American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures.