Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ullman, A. J.; Aitken, L. M.; Rattray, J.; Kenardy, J. A.; Le Brocque, R.; MacGillivray, S.; Hull, A. (2015)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: R
Objectives: To assess the effect of an intensive care unit (ICU) diary versus no ICU diary on patients, and their caregivers or families, during the patient's recovery from admission to an ICU.\ud \ud Design: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials.\ud \ud Data sources: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PILOT; Web of Science Conference Proceedings, clinical trial registries and reference lists of identified trials.\ud \ud Review methods: Studies evaluated the effectiveness of patient diaries, when compared to no ICU diary, for patients or family members to promote recovery after admission to ICU were included. Outcome measures for describing recovery from ICU included the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress symptomatology, health-related quality of life and costs. We used standard methodological approaches as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors independently reviewed titles for inclusion, extracted data and undertook risk of bias according to pre-specified criteria.\ud \ud Results: We identified three eligible studies; two describing ICU patients (N = 358), and one describing relatives of ICU patients (N = 30). No study adequately reported on risk of PTSD as described using a clinical interview, family or caregiver anxiety or depression, health-related quality of life or costs. Within a single study there was no clear evidence of a difference in risk for developing anxiety (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.19) or depression (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.19) in participants who received ICU diaries, in comparison to those that did not receive a patient diary. Within a single study there was no evidence of difference in median post-traumatic stress symptomatology scores (diaries 24, SD 11.6; no diary 24, SD 11.6) and delusional ICU memory recall (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.28) between the patients recovering from ICU admission who received patient diaries, and those who did not. One study reported reduced post-traumatic stress symptomatology in family members of patients recovering from admission to ICU who received patient diaries (median 19; range 14 to 28), in comparison to no diary (median 28; range 14 to 38). \ud \ud Conclusions: Currently there is minimal evidence from RCTs of the benefits or harms of patient diaries for patients and their caregivers or family members. A small study has described their potential to reduce post-traumatic stress symptomatology in family members. However, there is currently inadequate evidence to support their effectiveness in improving psychological recovery after critical illness for patients and their family members.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Garrouste-Orgeas, M., et al., Impact of an intensive care unit diary on psychological distress in patients and relatives. Critical Care Medicine, 2012. 40(7): p. 2033-40.
    • Kiekkas, P., et al., Psychological distress and delusional memories after critical care: a literature review. International Nursing Review, 2010. 57: p. 288-96.
    • Merilaginen, M., H. Kyngaas, and T. Ala-Kokko, 24-hour intensive care: an observational study of an environment and events. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 2010. 26(5): p. 246.
    • Adamson, H., et al., Memories of intensive care experiences of survivors of a critical illness: an interview study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 2004. 20(5): p. 257.
    • BMC Health Services Research, 2007. 7: p. 116.
    • M.J. Friedman, T.M. Keane, and P.A. Watson. 2007, Guilford Press: New York.
    • Myhren, H., et al., Patients memory and psychological distress after ICU stay compared with expectations of the relatives. Intensive Care Medicine, 2009. 35(12): p. 2078.
    • Sukantarat, K., et al., Physical and psychological sequelae of critical illness. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2007. 12: p. 65-74.
    • Rattray, J., M. Johnston, and J.A. WIldsmith, Predictors of emotional outcomes of intensive care. Anaesthesia, 2005. 60: p. 1085-92.
    • Samuelson, K.A.M., D. Lundberg, and B. Fridlund, Stressful memories and psychological distress in adult mechanically ventilated intensive care patients - a 2-month follow-up study.
    • Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2007. 51: p. 671-8.
    • American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. 2013, Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.
    • Jones, C., et al., Memory, delusions and the development of acute post-traumatic stress disorder-related symptoms after intensive care. Critical Care Medicine, 2001. 29: p. 573-80.
    • Ringdal, M., et al., Outcome after injury: memories, health-related quality of life, anxiety, and symptoms of depression after intensive care. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 2009. 66(4): p. 1226.
    • Rattray, J., et al., Patients' perception of and emotional outcome after intensive care: results from a multicentre study. Nursing in Critical Care, 2010. 15(2): p. 86-93.
    • Schelling, G., et al., Exposure to high stress in the intensive care unit may have negative effects on health-related quality-of-life outcomes after cardiac surgery. Critical Care Medicine, 2003. 31: p. 1971-80.
    • Granja, C., et al., Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder-related symptoms after critical care: the early illness amnesia hypothesis. Critical Care Medicine, 2008. 36(10): p. 2801.
    • Aitken, L.M., et al., The use of diaries in psychological recovery from intensive care. Crit Care, 2013. 17(6): p. 253.
    • Egerod, I., et al., Constructing the illness narrative: a grounded theory exploring patients' and relatives use ofintensive care diaries. Critical Care Medicine, 2011. 39(8): p. 1922-1928.
    • Egerod, I., S.L. Storli, and E. Akerman, Intensive care patient diaries in Scandinavia: a comparative study of emergence and evolution. Nursing Inquiry, 2011. 18(3): p. 235-246.
    • Akerman, E., et al., Use and practice of patient diaries in Swedish intensive care units: a national survey. Nursing in Critical Care, 2010. 15(1): p. 26-33.
    • Egerod, I., et al., The extent and application of patient diaries in Danish ICUs in 2006. Nursing in Critical Care, 2007. 12(3): p. 159-167.
    • Hale, M., L. Parfitt, and T. Rich, How diaries can improve the experience of intensive care patients. Nursing Management, 2010. 17(8): p. 14-18.
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
  • Discovered through pilot similarity algorithms. Send us your feedback.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article