Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Ford, E.; Ayers, S. (2011)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: BF, RG

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: macromolecular substances
Background: Many women experience childbirth as traumatic and 2% develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined the role of health practitioner support and personal control during birth as predictors of PTS symptoms, adjusting for vulnerability factors of prior trauma, depression, control beliefs and birth intervention. It also investigated interactions between support, prior trauma and birth intervention and their association with PTS symptoms.\ud \ud Methods: A prospective longitudinal survey of 138 women recruited from UK NHS maternity clinics. Measures were taken in pregnancy, three-weeks and three-months after the birth.\ud \ud Results: Support and control during birth were not predictive of postnatal PTS symptoms. However, support was predictive of PTS symptoms in a subset of women with prior trauma (beta = -.41, R2 = 16%) at both three-weeks and three-months postpartum. The interaction of birth intervention and support was associated with PTS symptoms three-months after birth, the relationship between support and PTS symptoms was stronger in women experiencing more intervention.\ud \ud Conclusions: Low support from health practitioners is predictive of postnatal PTS symptoms in women who have a history of trauma. Longer-term effects of low support on postnatal PTS symptoms are also found in women who had more intervention during birth.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington DC.
    • Alcorn, K. L., O'Donovan, A., Patrick, J. C., Creedy, D., & Devilly, G. J. (2010). A prospective longitudinal study of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from childbirth events. Psychological Medicine. doi:10.1017/S0033291709992224
    • Ayers, S. (1999). Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Following Childbirth Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of London.
    • Ayers, S., Harris, R., Sawyer, A., Parfitt, Y., & Ford, E. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth: Analysis of symptom presentation and sampling. Journal of Affective Disorders, 119, 200-204.
    • Ayers, S., & Pickering, A. (2001). Do Women get posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of childbirth? A Prospective study of incidence. Birth, 2, 111-118.
    • Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Gotlib, I. H. (1993). Psychopathology and Early Experience: A Reappraisal of Retrospective Reports. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 82-98.
    • Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. D. (2000). Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 748-766.
    • Charuvastra, A., & Cloitre, M. (2008). Social Bonds and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 301-328.
    • Cigoli, V., Gilli, G., & Saita, E. (2006). Relational factors in psychopathological responses to childbirth. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 27(2), 91-97.
    • Clement, S., Wilson, J., & Sikorski, J. (1999). The development of an intrapartum intervention score based on women's experiences. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 17(1), 53-62.
    • Cohen, M., Ansara, D., Schei, B., Stuckless, N., & Stewart, D. (2004). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery. Journal of Women's Health, 13(3), 315-324.
    • Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of Postnatal Depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786.
    • Creedy, D., Shochet, I., & Horsfall, J. (2000). Childbirth and the Development of Acute Trauma Symptoms. Birth, 27(2), 104-111.
    • Czarnocka, J., & Slade, P. (2000). Prevalence and Predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 35-51.
    • Ehlers, A., & Clark, D. M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(4), 319-345.
    • Elmir, R., Schmied, V., Wilkes, L., & Jackson, D. (2010). Women's perceptions and experiences of a traumatic birth: A meta-ethnography. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(10), 2142-2153.
    • Foa, E. B., Cashman, L., Jaycox, L., & Perry, K. (1997). The Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Psychological Assessment, 9(4), 445-451.
    • Ford, E., & Ayers, S. (2009). Stressful events and support during birth: The effect on anxiety, mood and perceived control. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 260-268.
    • Ford, E., Ayers, S., & Wright, D. B. (2009). Measurement of maternal perceptions of support and control in birth (SCIB). Journal of Women's Health, 18(2), 245-252.
    • Goodman, P., Mackay, M., & Tavakoli, A. (2004). Factors related to childbirth satisfaction. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 46(2), 212-219.
    • Green, J. M., & Baston, H. A. (2003). Feeling in control during labor: Concepts, correlates, and consequences. Birth-Issues In Perinatal Care, 30(4), 235-247.
    • Hammen, C. (1991). Generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 555-561.
    • Hammen, C. (2005). Stress and Depression. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 293-319.
    • Hodnett, E. D., Gates, S., Hofmeyr, G., & Sakala, C. (2003). Continuous Support for women during childbirth. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(3), Art No.: CD003766. DOI:003710.001002/14651858.CD14003766.
    • Horowitz, M. J. (1979). Psychological response to serious life events. . In V. Hamilton & D. M. Warburton (Eds.), Human Stress and Cognition: An Information Processing Approach. New York: Wiley.
    • Hubley, A. M., & Wagner, S. (2004). Using alternate forms of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale: Caveat emptor. Social Indicators Research, 65(2), 167-186.
    • Kennedy, H., & MacDonald, E. (2002). "Altered consciousness" during childbirth: potential clues to post traumatic stress disorder? Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 47(5), 380-382.
    • Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 62(6), 593-602.
    • Koren, D., Arnon, I., & Klein, E. (1999). Acute Stress Response and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Traffic Accident Victims: A One-Year Prospective, Follow-Up Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(3), 367-373.
    • Kuyken, W., & Brewin, C. R. (1995). Autobiographical Memory Functioning in Depression and Reports of Early Abuse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(4), 585-591.
    • Lundgren, I. (2005). Swedish women's experience of childbirth 2 years after birth. Midwifery, 21(4), 346-354.
    • Maclean, L., McDermott, M., & May, C. (2000). Method of delivery and subjective distress: women's emotional responses to childbirth practises. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 18, 153-162.
    • Maggioni, C., Margola, D., & Filippi, F. (2006). PTSD, risk factors, and expectations among women having a baby: A two-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 27(2), 81-90.
    • McNally, R. J. (2009). Can we fix PTSD in DSM-V? Depression and Anxiety, 26, 597- 600.
    • Melender, H. L. (2006). What constitutes a good childbirth? A qualitative study of pregnant Finnish women. Journal of Midwifery & Womens Health, 51(5), 331- 339.
    • Nystedt, A., Hogberg, U., & Lundman, B. (2006). Some swedish women's experiences of prolonged labour. Midwifery, 22, 56-65.
    • Olde, E., van der Hart, O., Kleber, R., & van Son, M. (2006). Posttraumatic stress following childbirth: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(1), 1-16.
    • Ozer, E. J., Best, S. R., Lipsey, T. L., & Weiss, D. S. (2003). Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Symptoms in Adults: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129(1), 52-73.
    • Richardson, A., & Mmata, C. (2007). NHS Maternity Statistics, England: 2005-06. Retrieved 28th July 2008, from http://www.ic.nhs.uk/webfiles/publications/maternity0506/NHSMaternityStatsEn gland200506_fullpublication%20V3.pdf
    • Rothbaum, B. O., Foa, E. B., Riggs, D. S., Murdock, T., & Walsh, W. (1992). A prospective examination of post-traumatic stress disorder in rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3), 455-475.
    • Sauls, D. (2002). Effects of Labor support on mothers, babies and birth outcomes. Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 31(6), 733-741.
    • Scott, K. D., Klaus, P. H., & Klaus, M. H. (1999). The obstetrical and postpartum benefits of continuous support during childbirth. Journal of Women's Health and Gender-based Medicine, 8(10), 1257-1264.
    • Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prenticedunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The Self-Efficacy Scale - Construction and Validation. Psychological Reports, 51(2), 663-671.
    • Skari, H., Skreden, M., Malt, U. F., Dalholt, M., Ostensen, A. B., Egeland, T., et al. (2002). Comparative levels of psychological distress, stress symptoms, depression and anxiety after childbirth--a prospective population-based study of mothers and fathers. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 109(10), 1154-1163.
    • Slade, P., MacPherson, S., Hume, A., & Maresh, M. (1993). Expectations, Experiences and Satisfaction with Labour. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32, 469- 483.
    • Soderquist, J., Wijma, B., & Wijma, K. (2006). The longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress after childbirth. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 27(2), 113-119.
    • Soderquist, J., Wijma, K., & Wijma, B. (2002). Traumatic Stress after Childbirth: the role of obstetric variables. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 23, 31-39.
    • Soet, J., Brack, G., & Dilorio, C. (2003). Prevalence and Predictors of Women's Experience of Psychological Trauma During Childbirth. Birth, 30, 36-46.
    • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics (4th Edition ed.). Boston MA, USA: Allyn and Bacon.
    • Tedstone, J. E., & Tarrier, N. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder following medical illness and treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(3), 409-448.
    • Wallston, K. A., Wallston, B. S., & Devellis, R. (1978). Development of Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scales. Health Education Monographs, 6(2), 160-170.
    • White, T., Matthey, S., Boyd, K., & Barnett, B. (2006). Postnatal depression and posttraumatic stress after childbirth: Prevalence, course and co-occurrence. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 24(2), 107-120.
    • Wijma, K., Soderquist, J., & Wijma, B. (1997). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Childbirth: A Cross Sectional Study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11(6), 587- 597.
    • Zhang, J., Bernasko, J. W., Leybovich, E., Fahs, M., & Hatch, M. C. (1996). Continuous labor support from labor attendant for primiparous women: a meta-analysis. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 88(4 Pt 2), 739-744.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article