LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Wysocki, Michael Peter; Wittle, A; Bayliss, A (2007)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: V400
Thirty-one radiocarbon results are now available from the West Kennet long barrow, and are presented within an interpretive Bayesian statistical framework. Two alternative archaeological interpretations of the sequence are given, each with a separate Bayesian model. In our preferred interpretation, the barrow is seen as a unitary construction (given the lack of dating samples from the old ground surface, ditches or constructional features themselves), with a series of deposits of human remains made in the chambers following construction. Primary deposition in the chambers is followed by further secondary deposition of some human remains, including children, and layers of earth and chalk, the latest identifiable finds in which are Beaker sherds. In the Bayesian model for this sequence, the construction of the monument at West Kennet, as dated from the primary mortuary deposits, occurred in 3670–3635 cal. BC, probably in the middle decades of the thirty-seventh century cal. BC. The last interments of this initial use of the chambers probably occurred in 3640–3610 cal. BC. The difference between these two distributions suggests that this primary mortuary activity probably continued for only 10–30 years. After a hiatus probably lasting for rather more than a century, the infilling of the chambers began in 3620–3240 cal. BC and continued into the second half of the third millennium cal. BC. In an alternative interpretation, we do not assume that all the people dated from the primary mortuary deposits were placed in the monument in a fleshed or partially articulated condition; they could therefore have died before the monument was built, although they must have died before the end of the formation of the mortuary deposit. In the Bayesian model for this interpretation, the monument appears to belong either to the thirty-seventh century cal. BC or the mid-thirty-sixth century cal. BC, and deposition again appears short-lived, but the model is unstable. Results are discussed in relation to the setting and sequence of the local region.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • AAHRG, 2001. Archaeological Research Agenda for the World Heritage Site. Salisbury: Avebury Archaeological and Historical Research Group.
    • Aerts-Bijma, A.T., H.A.J. Meijer & J. van der Plicht, 1997. AMS sample handling in Groningen. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 123, 221-5.
    • Aerts-Bijma, A.T., J. van der Plicht & H.A.J. Meijer, 2001. Automatic AMS sample combustion and CO2 collection. Radiocarbon 43(2A), 293-8.
    • Ambers, J. & R. Housley, 1999. Radiocarbon dating, in The Harmony of Symbols: the Windmill Hill Causewayed Enclosure, Wiltshire, eds. A. Whitle, J. Pollard & C. Grigson. Oxford: Oxbow, 116-20.
    • Ashbee, P., I.F. Smith & J.G. Evans, 1979. Excavation of three long barrows near Avebury, Wiltshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 45, 207-300.
    • Barclay, A., 2000. Spatial Histories of the Neolithic: a Study of the Monuments and Material Culture of Central Southern England. Unpublished PhD thesis, Depart - ment of Archaeology, University of Reading.
    • Barclay, A., 2006. Connections and networks: a wider world and other places, in Building Memories: the Neolithic Cotswold Long Barrow at Ascot-under-Wychwood, Ox - fordshire, eds. D. Benson & A. Whilte. Oxford: Oxbow, 331-44.
    • Bayliss, A. & C. Bronk Ramsey, 2004.Pragmatic Bayesians: a decade integrating radiocarbon dates into chronological models, in Tools for Constructing Chronologies: Tools for Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries, eds. C.E. Buck & A.R. Millard. London: Springer, 25-41.
    • Bayliss, A., C. Bronk Ramsey & F.G. McCormac, 1997.Dating Stonehenge, in Science and Stonehenge, eds. B. Cunlief & C. Renfrew. Oxford: British Academy, 39-59.
    • Bronk Ramsey, C., 1995. Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy. Radiocarbon 36, 425-30.
    • Bronk Ramsey, C., 1998. Probability and dating. Radiocarbon 40, 461-74.
    • Bronk Ramsey, C., 2001. Development of the radiocarbon calibration program. Radiocarbon 43, 355-63.
    • Bronk Ramsey, C., P.B. Petit, R.E.M. Hedges, G.W.L. Hod - gins & D.C. Owen, 2000. Radiocarbon dates from the Oxford AMS system: Archaeometry datelist 30. Archaeometry 42, 459-79.
    • Bronk Ramsey, C., T.F.G. Higham, A. Bowles & R.E.M. Hedges, 2004a. Improvements to the pre-treatment of bone at Oxford. Radiocarbon 46, 155-63.
    • Bronk Ramsey, C., T. Higham & P. Leach, 2004b. Towards high precision AMS: progress and limitations. Radiocarbon 46, 17-24.
    • Case, H., 1993. Beakers: deconstruction and aeftr. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 59, 241-68.
    • Case, H., 1995. Some Wiltshire Beakers and their contexts. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 88, 1-17.
    • Corcoran, J.X.W.P., 1969. The Cotswold-Severn group. 1. Distribution, morphology and artefacts, in Megalithic Enquiries in the West of Britain, eds. T.G.E. Powell, J.X.W.P. Corcoran, F. Lynch & J.G. Scot. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 13-72.
    • Darvill, T.C., 1982. The Megalithic Chambered Tombs of the Cotswold-Severn Region. Highworth: Vorda.
    • Evans, J.G., 1972. Land Snails in Archaeology. London: Seminar Press.
    • Gibson, A., 2000. Survey and Excavation at the West Kennet Long Barrow. (Centre for Archaeology Project Design 657 (unpublished).) Portsmouth: English Heritage.
    • Gillespie, R., R.E.M. Hedges & J.O. Wand, 1984. Radiocarbon dating of bone by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Archaeological Science 11, 165-70.
    • Gillespie, R., J.A.J. Gowlet, E.T. Hall, R.E.M. Hedges & C. Perry, 1985. Radiocarbon dates from the Oxford AMS system: Archaeometry datelist 2. Archaeometry 27, 237-46.
    • Gillings, M. & J. Pollard, 2004. Avebury. London: Duckworth.
    • Gowle,t J.A.J., E.T. Hall & R.E.M. Hedges, 1986a. The date of the West Kennet long barrow. Antiquity 60, 143-4.
    • Gowlet, J.A.J., R.E.M. Hedges, I.A. Law & C. Perry, 1986b. Radiocarbon dates from the Oxford AMS system: Archaeometry datelist 4. Archaeometry 28, 206-21.
    • Haglund, W.D., 1997a. Dogs and coyotes: postmortem involvement with human remains, in Forensic Taphonomy: the Postmortem Fate of Human Remains, eds. W.D. Haglund & M.H. Sorg. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, 367-81.
    • Haglund, W.D., 1997b. Scatered skeletal human remains: search strategy considerations for locating missing teeth, in Forensic Taphonomy: the Postmortem Fate of Human Remains, eds. W.D. Haglund & M.H. Sorg. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, 383-94.
    • Hedges, R.E.M., C.R. Bronk & R.A. Housley, 1989. The Oxford accelerator mass spectrometry facility; technical developments in routine dating. Archaeometry 31, 99-113.
    • Law, I.A. & R.E.M. Hedges, 1989. A semi-automated pretreatment system and the pretreatment of older and contaminated samples. Radiocarbon 31, 247-53.
    • Mant, A.K., 1987. Knowledge acquired from post-War exhumations, in Death, Decay and Reconstruction, eds. A. Boddington, A.N. Garland & R.C. Janaway. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 65-80.
    • Martin, L., 2001. The West Kennet Long Barrow, Wiltshire: Report on Geophysical Survey, January 2001. (Centre for Archaeology Report 78/2001.) Portsmouth: English Heritage.
    • North, J., 1996. Stonehenge: Neolithic Man and the Cosmos. London: HarperCollins.
    • Pearson, G.W., J.R. Pilcher, M.G.L., Baillie, D.M. Corbet & F. Qua, 1986. High-precision 14C measurement of Irish oaks to show the natural14C variations from ad 1840-5210 bc. Radiocarbon 28, 911-34.
    • Piggot, S., 1962. The West Kennet Long Barrow: Excavations 1955-56. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Ofice.
    • Pist, M., 2001. Excavating the Sanctuary: new investigations on Overton Hill, Avebury. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 94, 1-23.
    • Pollard, J. & A. Reynolds, 2002. Avebury: the Biography of a Landscape. Stroud: Tempus.
    • Reimer, P.J., M.G.L. Baillie, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J.W. Beck, C.J.H. Bertrand, P.G. Blackwell, C.E. Buck, G.S. Burr, K.B. Cutler, P.E. Damon, R.L. Edwards, R.G. Fairbanks, M. Friedrich, T.P. Guilderson, A.G. Hogg, K.A. Hughen, B. Kromer, F.G. McCormac, S. Manning, C. Bronk Ramsey, R.W. Reimer, S. Remmele, J.R. Southon, M. Stuiver, S. Talamo, F.W. Taylor, J. van der Plicht & C.E. Weyhenmeyer, 2004. IntCal04 Terrestrial Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 0-26 cal kyr bp. Radiocarbon 46, 1029-58.
    • Roksandić, M., 2002. Position of skeletal remains as a key to understanding mortuary behaviour, in Advances in Forensic Taphonomy: Method, Theory and Archaeological Perspectives, eds. W.D. Haglund & M.H. Sorg. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, 99-117.
    • Saville, A., 1990. Hazleton North: the Excavation of a Neolithic Long Cairn of the Cotswold-Severn Group. London: English Heritage.
    • Smith, I.F., 1965. Windmill Hill and Avebury. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    • Stuiver, M. & H.A. Polach, 1977. Reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19, 355-63.
    • Stuiver, M. & P.J. Reimer, 1986. A computer program for radiocarbon age calculation. Radiocarbon 28, 1022-30.
    • Stuiver, M. & P.J. Reimer, 1993. Extended 14C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 14C age calibration program. Radiocarbon 35, 215-30.
    • Stuiver, M., P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, J.W. Beck, G.S. Burr, K.A. Hughen, B. Kromer, F.G. McCormack, J. van der Plicht & M. Spur, 1998. INTCAL98 radiocarbon age calibration, 24,000-0 cal bp. Radiocarbon 40, 1041-84.
    • Thomas, J. & A. Whitle, 1986. Anatomy of a tomb - West Kennet revisited. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 5, 129-56.
    • Thurnam, J., 1860. On the examination of a chambered long barrow at West Kennet, Wiltshire. Archaeologia 38, 405-21.
    • van der Plicht, J., S. Wijma, A.T. Aerts, M.H. Pertuisot & H.A. Meijer, 2000. Status report: the Groningen AMS facility. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 172, 58-65.
    • Wand, J.O., R. Gillespie & R.E.M. Hedges, 1984. Sample preparation for Accelerator-based radiocarbon dating. Journal of Archaeological Science 11, 159-63.
    • Ward, G.K. & S.R. Wilson, 1978. Procedures for comparing and combining radiocarbon age determinations: a critique. Archaeometry 20, 19-31.
    • Wells, L.H., 1962. The inhumation burials, in The West Kennet Long Barrow: Excavations 1955-56, ed. S. Piggot. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Ofice, 79-89.
    • Whitle, A., 1993. The Neolithic of the Avebury area: se - quence, environment, setlement and monuments. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 12, 29-53.
    • Whitle, A., 1994. Excavations at Millbarrow chambered tomb, Winterbourne Monkton, north Wiltshire. Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine 87, 1-53.
    • Whitle, A., 1997. Sacred Mound, Holy Rings. Silbury Hill and the West Kennet Palisade Enclosures: a Later Neolithic
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article