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fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Nicholson, Paul Thomas (2006)
Publisher: The Corning Museum of Glass
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 4. The British Museum EA 26289 (fragment) and EA 26290 (intact).
    • 5. C. Nicholas Reeves, “Two Name-Beads of Hatshepsut and Senenmut from the Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri,” Antiquaries Journal, v. 66, 1986, pp. 387-388.
    • 6. Ibid., p. 388.
    • 7. M. Bimson and I. C. Freestone, “Some Egyptian Glasses Dated by Royal Inscriptions,” Journal of Glass Studies, v. 30, 1988, p. 11.
    • 8. M. R. Cowell and A. E. Werner, “Analysis of Some Egyptian Glass,” Annales de l'Association Internationale pour l'Histoire du Verre, v. 6, Cologne, 1973 (Liège, 1974), pp. 295-298.
    • 9. The British Museum EA 9558.
    • 10. Based on comparison with analyses by Cowell and Werner [note 8].
    • 11. Bimson and Freestone [note 7], p. 12.
    • 12. Cf. T. Rehren, “Rationales in Old World Base Glass Composition,” Journal of Archaeological Science, v. 27, 2000, pp. 1225-1234.
    • 13. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1978.691.
    • 14. Edward Brovarski, Susan K. Doll, and Rita E. Freed, Egypt's Golden Age: The Art of Living in the New Kingdom, 1558-1085 B.C., Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1982, p. 169.
    • 15. Ibid.
    • 16. Paul T. Nicholson, Report on the Excavations at Amarna 045.1 and the Place of Glass in Egypt's New Kingdom, London: Egypt Exploration Society, forthcoming.
    • 17. Veronica Tatton-Brown and Carol Andrews, “Before the Invention of Glassblowing,” in Five Thousand Years of Glass, ed. H. Tait, London: British Museum, 1991, p. 26.
    • 18. A. Leo Oppenheim, “Towards a History of Glass in the Ancient Near East,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, v. 93, 1973, p. 262.
    • 19. W. M. Flinders Petrie, “Glass Found in Egypt,” Transactions of the British Newcomen Society, v. 5, 1925, p. 72.
    • 20. Donald B. Harden, “Ancient Glass, 1: Pre-Roman,” The Archaeological Journal, v. 125, 1968, p. 48.
    • 21. Oppenheim [note 18].
    • 22. The British Museum EA 148. For a translation, see William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, p. 235.
    • 23. W. M. Flinders Petrie, “Glass in the Early Ages,” Journal of the Society of Glass Technology, v. 10, 1926, p. 230. Although the text of this reference is attributed to Petrie, it is a summary prepared by a member of the audience at a Society meeting held in London on June 1, 1926, and it contains numerous errors.
    • 24. Birgit Nolte, Die Glasgefässe im alten Ägypten, Berlin: Bruno Hessling, 1968, pp. 12-13.
    • 25. Hsbd-Mn-hpr-R'.
    • 26. Robert S. Bianchi and others, Reflections on Ancient Glass from the Borowski Collection, Mainz: von Zabern, 2002, p. 20.
    • 27. Mfk3.t-Mn-hpr-R'.
    • 28. Bianchi and others [note 26].
    • 29. Ibid., p. 21.
    • 30. It should be remembered, however, that the (dark) blue ingots may represent Egyptian blue rather than glass. Their identification with glass has become more widely accepted since the discovery of the Ulu Burun shipwreck and its cargo. However, the ship is later than these reliefs, and it may well have been exporting glass from Egypt rather than importing it. See P. T. Nicholson, C. M. Jackson, and K. M. Trott, “The Ulu Burun Glass Ingots, Cylindrical Vessels and Egyptian Glass,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, v. 83, 1997, pp. 143-153.
    • 31. Shortland [note 1], p. 213.
    • 32. Bianchi and others [note 26], p. 20, n. 52. In Sir Alan H. Gardiner's Egyptian Grammar (3rd ed., Oxford: Griffith Institute, 1957, p. 513), sign T14, the throwstick that can be used to denote “foreign,” has been mistakenly read by Shortland as the finger (D50) meaning “10,000.” I am grateful to Drs. Ian Shaw and Kasia Spakowska for confirming that the Shortland reading is likely to be incorrect.
    • 33. Shortland [note 1], pp. 215-216.
    • 34. Nolte [note 24], pp. 46-50.
    • 35. The Egyptian Museum, Cairo 24960 and Brooklyn Museum of Art 53.176.4.
    • 36. The Metropolitan Museum of Art 26.7.1175.
    • 37. The table is adapted from Shortland [note 1], p. 215.
    • 38. The Metropolitan Museum of Art 26.7.1175.
    • 39. The Metropolitan Museum of Art 23.9.
    • 40. Nolte [note 24], p. 48.
    • 41. The Metropolitan Museum of Art 26.7.1179.
    • 42. Christine Lilyquist, The Tomb of Three Foreign Wives of Tuthmosis III, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003, p. 27.
    • 43. I am grateful to Dr. Lilyquist for confirming this view in an e-mail communication of January 3, 2005.
    • 44. C. Nicholas Reeves, Valley of the Kings, London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1990, p. 19.
    • 45. Ibid., p. 23. FIG. 1. The Munich chalice (ÄS630). H. 8.1 cm. (Drawing: Kate Trott)
    • 46. The Egyptian Museum, Cairo 24959.
    • 47. The Egyptian Museum, Cairo 24961.
    • 48. The Egyptian Museum, Cairo 24960.
    • 49. Brooklyn Museum of Art 53.176.4.
    • 50. The British Museum 47620.
    • 51. John D. Cooney, Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in the British Museum, v. 4, Glass, London: British Museum Publications Ltd., 1976, pp. 70-71.
    • 52. E. A. Wallis Budge, The Mummy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1925, p. 391.
    • 53. Cooney [note 51].
    • 54. Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst, Munich ÄS630.
    • 55. Percy E. Newberry, “A Glass Chalice of Tuthmosis III,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, v. 6, 1920, pp. 155-160.
    • 56. Nolte [note 24], p. 48.
    • 57. Ibid., p. 49.
    • 58. Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology Oxford, E2451. I am grateful to Dr. Helen Whitehouse for allowing me to examine this piece.
    • 59. L. Loat, Gurob, London: Quaritch, 1905, p. 7 and pl. IV:43.
    • 60. Paul Fossing, Glass Vessels before Glass Blowing, Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1940, p. 8, n. 6.
    • 61. Nolte [note 24], p. 49.
    • 62. Petrie Museum, UC 19657.
    • 63. Reginald Engelbach, Riqqeh and Memphis, v. 6, London: British School of Archaeology in Egypt, 1915, p. 16 and pls. 12 and 14.
    • 64. The British Museum 24391.
    • 65. Nolte [note 24], p. 47.
    • 66. The Metropolitan Museum of Art 26.7.1179.
    • 67. Lilyquist [note 42].
    • 68. Cairo 24959, 24960, and 24961.
    • 69. Brooklyn Museum of Art 53.176.4.
    • 70. I first saw this piece at an illustrated lecture on the Harrow collection presented by Dr. Ian Shaw, who kindly put me in touch with Dr. Carolyn Leder, curator of the museum. I am indebted to Dr. Leder for her kindness in allowing me to examine the piece and for making the notebook available to me. I also thank the keepers and governors of Harrow School for allowing me to prepare this article.
    • 71. For a description of the dwelling, see Jason Thompson, Sir Gardner Wilkinson and His Circle, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992, pp. 100-114. This same volume contains details of Wilkinson's life in Egypt.
    • 72. E. A. Wallis Budge, Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities from the Collection of the Late Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Harrow: J. C. Wilbee, 1887.
    • 73. For a general description of the collection, see Ian Shaw, Sir John Gardner Wilkinson: The Egyptian Collection, Harrow: The Herga Press, 1991. The vessel is briefly noted on p. 23.
    • 74. This is the current number. It also has the numbers E549 and B716.
    • 75. This handwritten catalog, on which Budge eventually drew, was prepared in 1864. It is still housed in the Harrow School Museum.
    • 76. See note 72. Wilkinson notebook (1864), p. 51.
    • 77. Ashmolean Museum E2451.
    • 78. Staatliche Sammlung Ägyptischer Kunst, Munich ÄS630.
    • 79. I have not received replies to my requests to examine this piece. My description is therefore based on published sources only.
    • 80. C. Lilyquist and R. H. Brill, Studies in Early Egyptian Glass, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993, p. 26 and n. 37. I am grateful to Dr. Tom Hardwick for drawing my attention to this reference, and to Dr. Lilyquist for discussing the piece with me.
    • 81. S. Goldstein, “Glass,” in Brovarski, Doll, and Freed [note 14], p. 163.
    • 82. I am unable to comment on the Munich chalice.
    • 83. Mark Taylor and David Hill, glassmakers in Quarley, near Andover, Hampshire, U.K. They have carried out extensive experiments pertaining to the technology of Roman and ancient Egyptian glass.
    • 84. Budge [note 72].
    • 85. Pliny, Natural History 37:18-22 (Penguin translation).
    • 86. See Paul T. Nicholson, “Hodder Westropp: NineteenthCentury Archaeologist,” Antiquity, v. 57, 1983, pp. 205-210, esp. p. 206.
    • 87. For example, The Corning Museum of Glass 59.1.17, of Nolte's Werkreis 2b of Amenhotep III-IV; Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond 59.29.1, of Werkreis 6 of Tutankhamun to Pinedjem II; and the undated Egyptian Museum, Cairo J.29845, which Nolte [note 24, p. 139] says is quite unlike the Thutmose III vessels.
    • 88. The British Museum 24391 and UC 19657.
    • 89. The Metropolitan Museum of Art 26.7.1179.
    • 90. The Egyptian Museum, Cairo 24959.
    • 91. The Metropolitan Museum of Art 23.9.
    • 92. The British Museum 47620.
    • 93. Norman De G. Davies, The Tomb of Rekh­Mire­ ' at Thebes, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1943, p. 28 and pl. XXI.
    • 94. Brooklyn Museum of Art 53.176.4 and Cairo 24960.
    • 95. Cf. Shortland [note 1], p. 220.
    • 96. Brooklyn Museum of Art 53.176.4.
    • 97. Shortland [note 1], p. 218; Lilyquist and Brill [note 80], pp. 36-37. I would agree with Shortland that the piece is probably Egyptian.
    • 98. Ibid.
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