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Aouad, GF; Arayici, Y
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Languages: English
Types: Book
Subjects: Q1, other, T057.6
A Computer Integrated Environment (CIE) is the type of innovative integrated information system that helps to reduce fragmentation and enables the stakeholders to collaborate together in business. Researchers have observed that the concept of CIE has been the subject of research for many years but the uptake of this technology has been very limited because of the development of the technology and its effective implementation. Although CIE is very much valued by both industrialists and academics, the answers to the question of how to develop and how to implement it are still not clear. \ud \ud The industrialists and researchers conveyed that networking, collaboration, information sharing and communication will become popular and critical issues in the future, which can be managed through CIE systems. In order for successful development of the technology, successful delivery, and effective implementation of user and industry-oriented CIE systems, requirements engineering seems a key parameter. Therefore, through experiences and lessons learnt in various case studies of CIE systems developments, this book explains the development of a requirements engineering framework specific to the CIE system. \ud The requirements engineering process that has been developed in the research is targeted at computer integrated environments with a particular interest in the construction industry as the implementation field. The key features of the requirements engineering framework are the following: (1) ready-to-use, (2) simple, (3) domain specific, (4) adaptable and (5) systematic, (6) integrated with the legacy systems. The method has three key constructs: i) techniques for requirements development, which includes the requirement elicitation, requirements analysis/modelling and requirements validation, ii) requirements documentation and iii) facilitating the requirements management. It focuses on system development methodologies for the human driven ICT solutions that provide communication, collaboration, information sharing and exchange through computer integrated environments for professionals situated in discrete locations but working in a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary environment. The overview for each chapter of the book is as follows;\ud Chapter 1 provides an overview by setting the scene and presents the issues involved in requirements engineering and CIE (Computer Integrated Environments). Furthermore, it makes an introduction to the necessity for requirements engineering for CIE system development, experiences and lessons learnt cumulatively from CIE systems developments that the authors have been involved in, and the process of the development of an ideal requirements engineering framework for CIE systems development, based on the experiences and lessons learnt from the multi-case studies.\ud \ud Chapter 2 aims at building up contextual knowledge to acquire a deeper understanding of the topic area. This includes a detailed definition of the requirements engineering discipline and the importance and principles of requirements engineering and its process. In addition, state of the art techniques and approaches, including contextual design approach, the use case modelling, and the agile requirements engineering processes, are explained to provide contextual knowledge and understanding about requirements engineering to the readers. \ud \ud After building contextual knowledge and understanding about requirements engineering in chapter 2, chapter 3 attempts to identify a scope and contextual knowledge and understanding about computer integrated environments and Building Information Modelling (BIM). In doing so, previous experiences of the authors about systems developments for computer integrated environments are explained in detail as the CIE/BIM case studies.\ud In the light of contextual knowledge gained about requirements engineering in chapter 2, in order to realize the critical necessity of requirements engineering to combine technology, process and people issues in the right balance, chapter 4 will critically evaluate the requirements engineering activities of CIE systems developments that are explained in chapter 3. Furthermore, to support the necessity of requirements engineering for human centred CIE systems development, the findings from semi-structured interviews are shown in a concept map that is also explained in this chapter.\ud In chapter 5, requirements engineering is investigated from different angles to pick up the key issues from discrete research studies and practice such as traceability through process and product modelling, goal-oriented requirements engineering, the essential and incidental complexities in requirements models, the measurability of quality requirements, the fundamentals of requirements engineering, identifying and involving the stakeholders, reconciling software requirements and system architectures and barriers to the industrial uptake of requirements engineering. In addition, a comprehensive research study measuring the success of requirements engineering processes through a set of evaluation criteria is introduced. Finally, the key issues and the criteria are comparatively analyzed and evaluated in order to match each other and confirm the validity of the criteria for the evaluation and assessment of the requirements engineering implementation in the CIE case study projects in chapter 7 and the key issues will be used in chapter 9 to support the CMM (Capability Maturity Model) for acceptance and wider implications of the requirements engineering framework to be proposed in chapter 8.\ud \ud Chapter 6 explains and particularly focuses on how the requirements engineering activities in the case study projects were handled by highlighting strengths and weaknesses. This will also include the experiences and lessons learnt from these system development practices. The findings from these developments will also be utilized to support the justification of the necessity of a requirements engineering framework for the CIE systems developments. In particular, the following are addressed.\ud • common and shared understanding in requirements engineering efforts,\ud • continuous improvement, \ud • outputs of requirement engineering \ud • reflections and the critical analysis of the requirements engineering approaches in these practices.\ud The premise of chapter 7 is to evaluate and assess the requirements engineering approaches in the CIE case study developments from multiple viewpoints in order to find out the strengths and the weaknesses in these requirements engineering processes. This evaluation will be mainly based on the set of criteria developed by the researchers and developers in the requirements engineering community in order to measure the success rate of the requirements engineering techniques after their implementation in the various system development projects. This set of criteria has already been introduced in chapter 5. This critical assessment includes conducting a questionnaire based survey and descriptive statistical analysis.\ud \ud In chapter 8, the requirements engineering techniques tested in the CIE case study developments are composed and compiled into a requirements engineering process in the light of the strengths and the weaknesses identified in the previous chapter through benchmarking with a Capability Maturity Model (CMM) to ensure that it has the required level of maturity for implementation in the CIE systems developments. As a result of this chapter, a framework for a generic requirements engineering process for CIE systems development will be proposed.\ud \ud In chapter 9, the authors will discuss the acceptance and the wider implications of the proposed framework of requirements engineering process using the CMM from chapter 8 and the key issues from chapter 5.\ud \ud Chapter 10 is the concluding chapter and it summarizes the findings and brings the book to a close with recommendations for the implementation of the Proposed RE framework and also prescribes a guideline as a way forward for better implementation of requirements engineering for successful developments of the CIE systems in the future.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 3.1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
    • 3.2. THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY AND ITS FEATURES ......ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. 3.2.1. Benefits of CIE to the Construction Industry............................. Error! Bookmark not defined.
    • 3.3. THE SCOPE AND ROLES OF CIE IN CONSTRUCTION ........ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. 3.3.1. Building Information Modelling (BIM)..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3.3.2. Product Models .......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
    • 4.1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
    • 4.2. THE CIE SYSTEMS FROM TECHNOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE...........ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
    • 4.3. REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING IN THE CIE COMMUNITY.............ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
    • DEFINED. 4.3.1. The ATLAS System................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.3.2. The OSCON System .................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.3.3. The SPACE System ................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.3.4. The WISPER System ................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.3.5 The GALLICON System ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.3.6. The DIVERCITY System .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.3.7. The nD Modelling System ......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
    • 4.4. INTERVIEWS IN THE CONSTRUCTION CIE COMMUNITY ...............ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
    • DEFINED. 4.4.1. Importance of Requirements Engineering in the CIC Development.........Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.4.2. Influence of Requirements Engineering upon Implementation.. Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.4.3. Lack of Requirements Engineering in the CIE Developments .. Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.4.4. The Increasing Awareness about Requirements Engineering in the CIE Community....... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.4.5. The Main Criteria for Requirements Engineering Activities ..... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.4.6. Evaluation of the Requirements Engineering Approaches......... Error! Bookmark not defined.
    • 5.1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
    • 5.2. IMPROVING THE REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS .........ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
    • DEFINED. 5.2.1. Traceability through Product and Process Modelling ................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2.2. Goal-oriented Requirements Engineering.................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2.3. Essential and Incidental Complexity in Requirements Models.. Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2.4. The Measurability of Quality Requirements.............................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2.5. The Requirement Fundamentals ................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2.6. Identifying and Involving the Stakeholders ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2.7. Reconciling Software Requirements and Architectures............. Error! Bookmark not defined. 5.2.8. Barriers to Uptake of Requirements Engineering ...................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
    • 7.1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
    • 7.2. COVERAGE OF THE EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT MODEL ....ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
    • DEFINED. 7.2.1. Fit of the CIE Systems with the Construction Organisations..... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.2.2. User Satisfaction and Commitment ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.2.3. Cost Benefits Analysis ............................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.2.4. The Quality of Architecture of the CIE Systems ....................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.2.5. Cost Effectiveness of the Requirements Engineering Process ... Error! Bookmark not defined.
    • 7.3 THE EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN CASE STUDY 3ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. 7.3.1. Plotting the Survey Data ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
    • 7.4. SURVEY RESULTS AND EVALUATION ...............................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. 7.4.1. Comparing the Views of the Technical and User Respondents . Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.4.2. Fit of the CIE System in Case Study 3 with the Construction Industry ....Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.4.3. User Satisfaction and Commitment ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.4.4. Quality of Cost/Benefit Analysis ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.4.5. The Quality of the Architecture of the CIE System ................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.4.6. Cost Effectiveness of the Requirements Engineering Process ... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7.4.7. Summary of the Analysis........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
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