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Kham, A.Z.
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: TA
The modern trends towards economy and the use of high strength materials have resulted in long spans and slender floors of low frequencies. These frequencies may be within the range of the first few harmonics of daily life human activities. Though the problem of resonance with walking vibrations, an activity most common on all floors, is unlikely, high amplitude or persistent vibrations due to these low-level excitations may cause alarm to building occupants. There may also be some problems with the most sensitive equipment. These uncomfortable vibrations are a serviceability limit state problem and can only be avoided by ensuring a high floor fundamental natural frequency and damping. There is a need, therefore, for a method to accurately predict the fundamental natural frequency and damping of these floors and to ensure that they are high enough to avoid any resonance or perceptibility problems. Available analytical formulae for the estimation of fundamental natural frequency are not directly applicable to actual floors due to various assumptions. The only method that may be reliably used for static or dynamic analyses is the finite element method because it can conveniently model the three dimensional nature of structures and account for the various boundary conditions and material properties. The research reported in this thesis consists of measuring fundamental natural frequencies and corresponding damping of a range of actual floors. The experimental frequencies have then been compared with those results which are based on the analytical formulae and finite element method. The analytical methods suitable for various categories of floors have been identified. A new linear-elastic single panel or beam finite element model, correlated with the experimental results, has been developed for the accurate estimation of the fundamental natural frequency of these floors. The correct boundary conditions for various categories of floors have been identified. The single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) formula for the estimation of fundamental natural frequency using static deflections has been modified for the floors tested. This modified SDOF formula can be used for convenient hand calculations by the consultants and designers who want a quick estimation of fundamental natural frequency due to time and cost limitations. The formula may also be used to limit static deflections and, therefore, design loads for any choice of a minimum fundamental natural frequency. Also, new limits on span/depth ratios for flat slabs and span limits for double-T beam floors have been suggested. Similarly, minimum fundamental natural frequencies, damping ratios and maximum static deflections have been suggested for the floors tested. The single panel or beam model may also be used for various parametric studies, both for static and dynamic analyses.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Chapter 3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 52 3.1 Post-Tensioned Concrete 1-Way Spanning Solid Floor Slabs
    • WithBeams ...................................... 53
    • 3.1.1 Wycombe Entertainment Centre Multi-Storey Car Park,
    • Level 1+ 54
    • 3.1.2 Wimbledon Town Hall Development Car Park, Basement-1 56
    • 3.1.3 The Hart Shopping Centre Car Park, Level-1 58
    • 3.1.4 The Exchange Shopping Centre Multi-Storey Car Park,
    • Level-1 60
    • 3.2 Post-Tensioned Concrete Solid Flat Slab Floors 62
    • 3.2.1 Vantage West Car Park 63
    • 3.2.2 The Hart Shopping Centre Car Park, Level-2 65
    • 3.2.3 Nurdin & Peacock Office 67
    • 3.2.4 Crown Gate Shopping Centre, Chapel Walk, Service Deck 69
    • 3.2.5 St. Martin's Gate Multi-Storey Car Park, Level-4 71
    • 3.2.6 Brindley Drive Multi-Storey Car Park, Level-4 73
    • 3.2.7 Snow Hill Re-Development Livery Street Multi-Storey
    • Car Park, Level-1B 75
    • 3.2.8 Snow RH Re-Development Livery Street Multi-Storey
    • Car Park, Level-lA 77
    • 3.2.9 Island Site, Finsbury Pavement, Office, Level-4 (Flexible Panel).79
    • 3.2.10 Island Site, Finsbury Pavement, Office, Level-4 (Stiff Panel) 81
    • 3.2.11 Friars Gate Multi-Storey Car Park, Level-5 83
    • 3.2.12 Tower Street Car Park 85
    • 3.3 Pre-Tensioned Concrete Double-T Beam Floors 87
    • 3.3.1 Trigonos Phase-V Multi-Storey Car Park, Level-6 88 3.3.2 Reading Station Re-Development Multi-Storey Car Park,
    • Level-10 3.3.3 Safeway Superstore Car Park 3.3.4 Toys R Us Multi-Storey Car Park #4, Level-7 3.3.5 Royal Victoria Place Multi-Storey Car Park, Level-3 Composite Steel-Concrete Slab Floors 3.4.1 The Millwall Football and Athletics Stadium, Senegal Fields,
    • West Stand, Hospitality Level 3.4.2 Worcester Central Development, Friary Walk Car Park,
    • Level-2 3.4.3 Braywick House Office 3.4.4 Premium Products Office 3.4.5 Tattersalls Grandstand Windsor Racing Stadium 3.4.6 St. George's RC Secondary School Office 3.4.7 BRE's Large Building Test Facility, Level-5 3.4.8 Guildford High School for Girls, Main Hall
    • Frequency vs Beam Length
    • Frequency vs Deflection Relationship Composite Steel-Concrete Slab Floors 4.4.1 Single-Panel Models 4.4.2 Parametric Studies
    • Frequency vs Slab Thickness
    • CSA Standard (1990). "Serviceability Criteria For Deflections And
    • Commentary A to part 4, NRCC, pages 146-152.
    • Chen, Y; Aswad, A. (1994). "Vibration Characteristics of Double Tee
    • Building Floors". PCI Journal, Volume 39, Number 1, pages 84-95.
    • Chui, Y.H. and Smith, I. (1988). "A Serviceability Criterion to Avoid Human
    • Symposium/Workshop on Serviceability of Buildings, 16-18 May 1988, Ottawa,
    • Ontario, Canada, Volume I, pages 512-525.
    • Clough, R.W. and Penzien, J. (1993). "Dynamics of Structures". McGraw-Hill
    • Concrete Society (1994). "Post-Tensioned Concrete Floors: Design
    • Handbook". CS Technical Report Number 43.
    • DIN 4150 (1975). "Vibrations in Civil Engineering. Part-2: Effects on
    • Ebrahimpour, A.; and Sack, R.L. (1988). "Crowd-Induced Dynamic Loads". Proceedings of the Symposium/Workshop on Serviceability of Buildings, 16-18 May 1988, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Volume I, pages 451-464. Ebrahimpour, A.; and Sack, R.L. (1992). "Design Live Loads for Coherent Crowd Harmonic Movements". ASCE Journal of the Structural Engineering, Volume 118, Number 4, pages 1121-1136. Ellingwood, B; Tallin, A. (1984). "Structural Serviceability: Floor Vibrations". ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, Volume 110, Number 2, pages 401-418. Ellis, B.R. (1994). "Dynamic Testing". Proceedings of the First Cardington Conference, Cardington, UK. Ellis, B.R.; and Ji, T. (1994). "Floor Vibration Induced by Dance-Type Loads: Verification". The Structural Engineer, Volume 72, Number 3, pages 45-50. Elnimeiri, M. and Iyengar, H. (1989). "Composite Floor Vibrations: Predicted and Measured". ASCE Structures Congress, May 1989, New York, USA, pages 487-493. [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76]
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  • No similar publications.

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