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Cornford, Tom (2010)
Languages: English
Types: Article
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    • 1OED, 'true', 4b. My use of the word 'craftsman' here is informed by reading Richard Sennett's remarkable book The Craftsman (London: Allen Lane, 2008). I am currently working on the relationship between his analysis of craftsmanship and various approaches to theatre-direction and actor-training.
    • 2Hamlet, 2.1.61-3. Subsequent references appear in the body of the text and all are to Ann Thompson and Neil Taylor's Arden edition of the 2nd Quarto (London, 2006).
    • 3The production was, however, a notable commercial success, being “shown eighty-four times, as often as five times a week during its first month and always to full houses,” (Vining-Morgan, 77).
    • 4The first was in 1896. The plan for his second production (which, for a number of reasons, did not fulfil its potential) is published as Stanislavski Produces Othello, trans. Helen Nowak (London: Geoffrey Bles, 1948). For information on the production see Jean Benedetti, Stanislavski: His Life and Art (London: Methuen, 1990), pp.328-30.
    • 5Elizabeth I died on March 24, 1603 and her funeral was on April 28. See also Antonia Fraser, The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith in 1605 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1996; this ed. London: Phoenix, 2002), p.xxxiv: “it was royal custom for [the burial] to happen a month after death.” 6He cites Salvador de Madariaga, who claims that “even on important points, Shakespeare does not seem to pay much attention either to his audience or the play,” On Hamlet (London: Hollis and Carter, 1948), p.115, a clanger if ever there was one.
    • 7I am depending partly on R.A. Foakes again here, and his analysis of the play's diction and imagery, see “Hamlet and the Court of Elsinore” in Shakespeare Survey 9, 1956, pp.35-43.
    • 8There are two ambassadors in both Quarto texts, though not in the Folio.
    • 9Tarkovsky struggled with the traditional translations, finding Lozinsky “inarticulate and clumsy” (Time Within Time 121) and Pasternak “appalling, opaque” (ibid.) and “staggeringly inaccurate” (380).
    • 10I take this quotation from his lecture on Characterization given in Hollywood in 1951 (On Theatre and the Art of Acting [The Working Arts Library]), but the exercise is also described in On the Technique of Acting, ed. Mel Gordon (New York: Harper Collins, 1991), pp.100-104.
    • 11See also Sculpting in Time p. 110 for examples of how Tarkovsky sought to alter the quality of time in his films to “bring out a state of mind through means other than acting.”
    • 12This is, of course, characteristic of Shakespeare, who regularly has multiple time-schemes within the same play, the most famous example being Othello. The compression of time is also evident in, for example, King Lear, where 2.2/Scene 7, which takes place outside Gloucester's house, goes from morning (“Good morrow” [2.2.298]) to “a wild night” (2.2.480) in under 200 lines.
    • 13They are: “sit down awhile” (1.1.29) and “sit down” (1.1.69).
    • 14For a clear analysis of Craig's theories of acting, see Charles R. Lyons, “Gordon Craig's Concept of the Actor,” in Educational Theatre Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Oct., 1964), pp.258-269.
    • 15See, for example, Tupitsyn pp.124-132.
    • 16See Meyerhold Speaks/Meyerhold Rehearses, p.72 for information on Meyerhold's theories of acting and movement, as well as Jonathan Pitches, Science and the Stanislavsky Tradition of Acting for a thorough analysis of the scientific basis (or lack thereof ) for Meyerhold's ideas.
    • 17See, for example, Meyerhold On Theatre, pp.147-149.
    • 18I use the terms as translated (flexibly) by the director Sergey Ostrenko's assistant, Inga Ryzanoff, in his workshops on biomechanics at The London Contemporary Dance School in 2008. There are many other options, see Pitches pp.75-6 for a summary.
    • 19This reading is supported by my conversations with the director Irina Brown, who was Tarkovsky's assistant for Boris Godunov (ROH, 1983).
    • 20From Tarkovsky's diary entry for 20 November 1983 (in the Polish edition of Martyrolog, ed. and trans. by Seweryn Kus´mierczyk, see http://www.ucalgary. ca/~tstronds/nostalghia.com/TheDiaries/hamlet.html, accessed on Sept. 9th, 2009).
    • 21Vitali Litviin, “Andrei Tarkovskii - Hamlet - a few things that I remember,” found and translated for me by Ludmila Anestiadi, see http://stihi. ru/2002/12/16-253, accessed on Sept. 9th, 2009.
    • 22The gravedigger also tells his companion to “Cudgel thy brains no more about it” (5.1.52), so, unless he is speaking figuratively, we have at least three heads on the receiving end of violence in the same scene.
    • 23Robert Bryan, “Lighting Boris Godunov with Andrei Tarkovsky,” April 2008. I am grateful to Irina Brown for sharing this piece with me.
    • 24Readers sympathetic to my Pragmatist introduction may be dismayed by the echo of Platonic dualism in my conclusion. I would respond that Darwin has taught us that we can have evolution without a specific or unchanging destination.
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