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Anu, Evarist Mbakem
Publisher: Northumbria University
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: L700
The World over, people are forced to move because of natural and human induced disasters. The constant growth in the number of displaced people has made forced migration a major issue of our time. Many factors account for displacement in developing countries. In Sub-Saharan Africa, conflicts, political repression and economic marginalisation have through the years forced millions to settle out of their countries of birth. This study examines the link between displacement, livelihoods and sustainable development. Stated differently, it probes into how the displacement process influences post-displacement livelihood reconstruction, as well as the impact of displacement on the communities of origin and the areas where resettlement is sought. Drawing on data collected in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo and Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, the study argues that individual experiences in displacement influence the group displaced people identify with as well as their post-displacement livelihood reconstruction strategies. The research questions originate from the findings of my field work in Brazzaville, and Newcastle, existing literature on displacement and livelihoods, and theories rooted in the political economy of impoverishment. The research questions seek to understand the impact of pre- displacement skills and capabilities on post displacement livelihoods, as well as factors which guide migrants in their experiences in displacement. They further seek to know the effect of the displacement process on migrants' sending and receiving communities, as well as the impact of institutions and policies in countries where resettlement is sought, on post-displacement livelihoods. The findings of the study assert that self-view in displacement and the subsequent livelihoods strategies are influenced by access to socio-economic participation in the location where resettlement is sought, as well as the range of rights and entitlements conferred to various categories of displaced people. This selective process is influenced by the pre-displacement status, the displacement track and individual experiences in displacement. The findings of this study further depict the complexity of the causes of displacement in Africa South of the Sahara in that, most migrants of African decent are in reality flushed out of their home countries by political persecution, armed conflict, economic marginalisation and livelihood insecurity, and not absolute poverty as commonly misconstrued. Livelihoods insecurity is a major factor which does not only force these people to move away from their communities of origin in a variety of settings, but equally prompts their re-displacement along the way.

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