Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Hu, Yihua; Zhang, Jiangfeng; Wu, Jiande; Cao, Wenping; Tian, Gui Yun; Kirtley, James L., Jr. (2016)
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Languages: English
Types: Article
The utilization of solar energy by photovoltaic (PV) systems have received much research and development (R&D) attention across the globe. In the past decades, a large number of PV array have been installed. Since the installed PV arrays often operate in harsh environments, non-uniform aging can occur and impact adversely on the performance of PV systems, especially in the middle and late periods of their service life. Due to the high cost of replacing aged PV modules by new modules, it is appealing to improve energy efficiency of aged PV systems. For this purpose, this paper presents a PV module reconfiguration strategy to achieve the maximum power generation from non-uniformly aged PV arrays without significant investment. The proposed reconfiguration strategy is based on the cell-unit structure of PV modules, the operating voltage limit of gird-connected converter, and the resulted bucket-effect of the maximum short circuit current. The objectives are to analyze all the potential reorganization options of the PV modules, find the maximum power point and express it in a proposition. This proposition is further developed into a novel implementable algorithm to calculate the maximum power generation and the corresponding reconfiguration of the PV modules. The immediate benefits from this reconfiguration are the increased total power output and maximum power point voltage information for global maximum power point tracking (MPPT). A PV array simulation model is used to illustrate the proposed method under three different cases. Furthermore, an experimental rig is built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method will open an effective approach for condition-based maintenance of emerging aging PV arrays.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [1] P. L. Carotenuto, P. Manganiello, G. Petrone, and G. Spagnuolo, “Online recording a PV module fingerprint,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 659-668, Mar. 2014.
    • [2] Y. A. Mahmoud, W. Xiao, H. H. Zeineldin, “A parameterization approach for enhancing PV model accuracy,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 5708-5716, 2013.
    • [3] Y. Hu, W. Cao, J. Ma S. Finney, D. Li, “Identifying PV module mismatch faults by a thermography-based temperature distribution analysis,” IEEE Trans. Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 951-960, 2014.
    • [4] M. Z. S El-Dein, M. Kazerani, M. M. A. Salama, “Optimal photovoltaic array reconfiguration to reduce partial shading losses,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, vol. 4, Issue 1, pp. 145-153, 2013.
    • [5] M. Mattei, G. Notton, C. Cristofari, M. Muselli, P. Poggi, “Calculation of the polycrystalline PV module temperature using a simple method of energy balance,” Renewable Energy, vol. 31, pp. 553-567, 2006.
    • [6] M. Boztepe, F. Guinjoan, G. Velasco-Quesada, S. Silvestre, A. Chouder, E. Karatepe, “Global MPPT scheme for photovoltaic string inverters based on restricted voltage window search algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 3302-3312, Jul. 2014.
    • [7] M. Abdelhamid, R. Singh, M. Omar, “Review of microcrack detection techniques for silicon solar cells,” IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 514-524, Jan. 2014.
    • [8] B. N. Alajmi, K. H. Ahmed, S. J. Finney, B. W. Williams, “A maximum power point tracking technique for partially shaded photovoltaic systems in microgrids,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1596-1606, April 2013.
    • [9] Produce information, Yingli Solar Ltd, Online Available: http://www.yinglisolar.com/en/products/solar-modules/
    • [10] Y. Hu, Y. Deng, Q. Liu, X. He, “Asymmetry three-level grid-connected current hysteresis control with varying bus voltage and virtual over-sample method,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 3214-3222, Jun. 2014.
    • [11] B. Zhao, Q. Song, W. Liu, Y. Sun, “A synthetic discrete design methodology of high-frequency isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter for grid-connected battery energy storage system using advanced components,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 5402- 5410, Oct. 2014. Efficiency improvement for non-uniform aging PV arrays
    • [12] W. Li, W. Li, X. Xiang, Y. Hu, X. He, “High step-up interleaved converter with built-in transformer voltage multiplier cells for sustainable energy applications,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 2829-2836, Jun. 2014.
    • [13] S. Djordjevic, D. Parlevliet, P. Jennings, “Detectable faults on recently installed solar modules in Western Australia,” Renewable Energy, vol. 67, pp. 215-221, 2014.
    • [14] E. L. Meyer, E. Ernest van Dyk, “Assessing the reliability and degradation of photovoltaic module performance parameters,” IEEE Trans. Reliability, vol. 53, Issue 1, pp. 83-92, Mar. 2004.
    • [15] E. V. Paraskevadaki, S. A. Papathanassiou, “Evaluation of MPP voltage and power of mc-Si PV modules in partial shading conditions,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 26, Issue 3, pp. 923-932, 2011.
    • [16] C. Buerhopa, D. Schlegela, M. Niessb, C. Vodermayerb, R. Weißmanna, C. J. Brabeca, “Reliability of IR-imaging of PV-plants under operating conditions,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 107, pp. 154-164, 2012.
    • [17] Y. Hu, B. Gao, G.Y. Tian, X. Song, K. Li, X. He, “Photovoltaic fault detection using a parameter based model,” Solar Energy, vol. 96, pp. 96-102, Oct. 2013.
    • [18] Z. Zou, Y. Hu, B. Gao, W. L. Woo and X. Zhao, “Study of the gradual change phenomenon in the infrared image when monitoring photovoltaic array,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 1-11, 2014.
    • [19] M. Simon and E. L. Meyer, “Detection and analysis of hot-spot formation in solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 106-113, 2010.
    • [20] J. Kurnik, M. Jankovec, K. Brecl and M. Topic, “Outdoor testing of PV module temperature and performance under different mounting and operational conditions,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, vol. 95, pp. 373-376, 2011.
    • [21] Y. Hu, W. Cao, J. Wu, B. Ji, D. Holliday, “Thermography-based virtual MPPT scheme for improving PV energy efficiency at partial shading conditions,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 5667-5672, Jun. 2014.
    • [22] T. Takashima, J. Yamaguchi, K. Otani, T. Oozeki, K. Kato, “Experimental studies of fault location in PV module strings,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93 issues. 6-7, pp. 1079-1082, Jun. 2009.
    • [23] R. A. Kumar, M. S. Suresh, J. Nagaraju, “Measurement of AC parameters of gallium arsenide (GaAs/Ge) solar cell by impedance spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, issue 9, pp. 2177-2179, 2001.
    • [24] A. Chouder, S. Silvestre, “Automatic supervision and fault detection of PV systems based on power losses analysis,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 51, issue 10, pp. 1929-1937, Oct. 2010.
    • [25] S. Silvestre, A. Chouder, E. Karatepe, “Automatic fault detection in grid connected PV systems,” Solar Energy, vol. 94, pp. 119-127, Aug. 2013.
    • [26] W. Wang, A. Liu, H. Chung, R. Lau, J. Zhang, and A. Lo, “Fault diagnosis of photovoltaic panels using dynamic current-voltage characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 1588-1599, Feb. 2016.
    • [27] Y. Zhao, R. Ball, J. Mosesian, J. F. de Palma, and B. Lehman, “Graph-based semi-supervised learning for fault detection and classification in solar photovoltaic arrays,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 2848- 2858, Feb. 2016.
    • [28] D. Nguyen,B. Lehman. “An adaptive solar photovoltaic array using model-based reconfiguration algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2644-2654, Jul. 2008.
    • [29] P. J. Storey, P. R. Wilson, and D. Bagnall, “Improved optimization strategy for irradiance equalization in dynamic photovoltaic arrays,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 2946-2956, Jun. 2013.
    • [30] Z. M. Salameh, F. Dagher, “The effect of electrical array reconfiguration on the performance of a PV-powered volumetric water pump,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 653-658, Dec. 1990.
    • [31] Y. Wang, X. Lin, Y. Kim, N. Chang, and M. Pedram, “Architecture and control algorithms for combating partial shading in photovoltaic systems,” IEEE Trans. Computer-Aided Design Integr. Circuits Syst., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 917-929, Jun. 2014.
    • [32] G. Velasco-Quesada, F. Guinjoan-Gispert, R. Pique-Lopez, M. RomanLumbreras, and A. Conesa-Roca, “Electrical PV array reconfiguration strategy for energy extraction improvement in grid-connected PV systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 4319-4331, Nov. 2009.
    • [33] J. Storey, P. R. Wilson, and D. Bagnall, “The optimized-string dynamic photovoltaic array,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 1768-1776, Apr. 2014.
    • [34] A. H. Chang, A. T. Avestruz, and S. B. Leeb, “Capacitor-less photovoltaic cell-level power balancing using diffusion charge redistribution,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 537-546, Feb. 2015.
    • [35] A. Ndiaye, C. M.F. Kebe, A. Charki, P. A. Ndiaye, V. Sambou, A. Kobi, “Degradation evaluation of crystalline-silicon photovoltaic modules after a few operation years in a tropical environment,” Solar Energy, vol. 103, pp. 70-77, Feb. 2014.
    • [36] C. R. Osterwald, A. Anderberg, S. Rummel, L. Ottoson, “Degradation analysis of weathered crystalline-silicon PV modules,” 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2002.
    • [37] L. Cristaldi, M. Faifer, M. Rossi, S. Toscani, M. Catelani, L. Ciani, M. Lazzaroni, “Simplified method for evaluating the effects of dust and aging on photovoltaic panels,” Measurement, vol. 54, pp. 207-214, Aug. 2014.
    • [38] N. Ababacar M. F. Cheikh A. Kébé, Pape Ndiaye, C. Abdérafi, K. Abdessamad, S. Vincent, “A novel method for investigating photovoltaic module degradation,” Energy Procedia, vol. 36 pp. 1222-1231, 2011.
    • [39] M. A. Munoz, M. C. Alonso-Garcia, Nieves Vela, F. Chenlo, “Early degradation of silicon PV modules and guaranty conditions,” Solar Energy, vol. 85, pp. 2264-2274, 2011.
    • [40] D. Chianese, N Cereghetti, S. Rezzonico, and G. Travaglini, “18 types of PV modules under the lens,” Proc.16th Euro. PV Sol. Energy Conf., Glasgow, Scotland, 2000.
    • [41] G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, B. Lehman, Y.Zhao, C.A.R. Paja, and M. L. Gutierrez, “Control of photovoltaic arrays: dynamical reconfiguration for fighting mismatched conditions and meeting load requests, ” IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, vol. 9, No. 1 Mar. 2015, pp. 62-76. Yihua Hu (SM'15, M'13) received the B.S. degree in electrical motor drives in 2003, and the Ph.D. degree in power electronics and drives in 2011, both from China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu, China. Between 2011 and 2013, he was with the College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University as a Postdoctoral Fellow. Between November 2012 and February 2013, he was an academic visiting scholar with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    • Between 2013 and 2015, he worked as a Research Associate at the power electronics and motor drive group, the University of Strathclyde. Currently, he is a Lecturer at the Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool (UoL). He has published more than 35 peer reviewed technical papers in leading journals. His research interests include PV generation system, power electronics converters & control, and electrical motor drives.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article