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Timms, P.; Emberger, G. (1997)
Publisher: Institute of Transport Studies, University of Leeds
Languages: English
Types: Book
The overall objectives of Project OPTIMA are:-\ud (i) to identify optimal urban transport strategies for a range of urban areas within the\ud EU;\ud (ii) to compare the strategies which are specified as optimal in different cities, and to\ud assess the reasons for these differences;\ud (iii) to assess the acceptability and feasibility of implementation of these strategies\ud both in the case study cities and more widely in the EU, and\ud (iv) to use the results to provide more general guidance on urban transport policy\ud within the EU.\ud There is a wide range of objectives of transport policy in urban areas, but most can be\ud grouped under the broad headings of economic efficiency, including economic\ud development, on the one hand, and sustainability, including environment, safety, equity\ud and quality of life, on the other. It is now generally accepted that the overall strategy for\ud achieving these objectives must include an element of reduction of private car use and\ud transfer of travel to other modes. The policy instruments for achieving these objectives\ud can include infrastructure provision, management measures to enhance other modes and\ud to restrict car use, and pricing measures to make public transport more attractive and to\ud increase the marginal cost of car use. It is now widely accepted that the most appropriate\ud strategy will involve several of these measures, combined in an integrated way which\ud emphasises the synergy between them.\ud The most appropriate strategy for a city will depend on its size, the current built form,\ud topography, transport infrastructure and patterns of use; levels of car ownership,\ud congestion and projected growth in travel; transport policy instruments already in use;\ud and the acceptability of other measures in political and legislative terms. These will\ud differ from city to city. Policy advice cannot therefore be generalised, but must be\ud developed for a range of different types of city. This is the approach adopted in this\ud study, in which nine different cities in five countries (Edinburgh, Merseyside, Vienna,\ud Eisenstadt, Trams@, Oslo, Helsinki, Torino and Salerno) have been studied in detail,\ud using a common study methodology. This report summarises the output of two work\ud packages in OPTIMA:\ud WP30: Test Combinations of Policy Instruments\ud WP40: Identify Optima
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