LOGIN TO YOUR ACCOUNT

Username
Password
Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Or use your Academic/Social account:

Congratulations!

You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.

Important!

Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message

CREATE AN ACCOUNT

Name:
Username:
Password:
Verify Password:
E-mail:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Begley, Larissa R (2011)
Languages: English
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: DT0450, DT0641
Using ethnographic data and James Scott’s (1990) concepts of public and hidden\ud transcripts, this thesis examines fow the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) government's public transcript has been institutionalised through the use of 'genocide ideology' laws. It is concerned with understanding how the RPF’s use of ‘genocide ideology’ is a\ud mechanism to facilitate a continuum of violence, which I argue has led to ‘ethnic’\ud marginalisation. ‘Genocide ideology’ is a legally abstract term that refers to discourses that\ud contest – consciously or unconsciously - the government narrative regarding the 1994\ud genocide. As focusing strictly om the public transcript does not tell the whole storry about power relations between the RPF government and Hutu, it also explores hidden transcript. This is necessary as the Rwandan government employs the category of\ud ‘genocide ideology’ to silence dissent and to justify arbitrary arrest. For example, since\ud taking power, the RPF government has strived to eliminate the Hutu/Tutsi identities,\ud replacing the divisive identities with ‘Rwandan.’ Those who use Hutu/Tutsi identities\ud outside the context of the genocide are considered génocidaire sympathisers and legally\ud guilty of ‘genocide ideology’. I argue that within the public RPF transcript on the genocide,\ud the victim/perpetrator dichotomy has become intertwined with Tutsi/Hutu identities,\ud creating a hierarchy of victimhood. I concluded by arguing that the violence, fear and\ud marginalisation experienced by participants through the government’s use of the public\ud transcript in conjunction with ‘genocide ideology’ laws is causing resentment, which could\ud lead to further conflict.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Aditjondro, G. (2000), 'Ninjas, Nanggalas, Monuments, and Mossad Manuals: An Anthropology of Indonesian State Terror in East Timor', in J. Sluka (ed.) Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    • Andre, C. (2002), 'Custom, Contracts and Cadastres in North-West Rwanda', The European Journal of Development Research 14(2): 153-172.
    • Angel-Ajaini, A. (2008), 'Expert Witness: Notes Toward Revisiting the Politics of Listening'. In Sanford, V and Angel-Ajaini (eds.) Engaged Observer: Anthropology, Advocacy and Activism, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
    • American Anthropologist Association. (2009) Code of Ethics of the American Anthropological Association, Approved February 2009.
    • Amnesty International. (1997), 'Democratic Republic of Congo: Deadly Alliances in Congolese Forests', (3): 1-46.
    • Amnesty International. (2000), 'Rwanda Report'.
    • Amnesty International. (2003), 'Rwanda: Run-up to Presidential Elections Marred by Threats and Harassment.
    • Amnesty International. (2007), 'Rwanda Report'.
    • Amnesty International'. (2007), 'Rwanda Report'.
    • Amnesty International. (2010), 'Safer to Stay Silent: The chilling effect of Rwanda's laws on 'genocide ideology', and 'Sectarianism'.
    • Amnesty International. (04/08/2010), 'Pre-Election Attacks on Rwandan Politicians and Journalists Condemned', http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/preelection-attacks-rwandan-politicians-and-journalists-condemned-2010-08-05, (accessed 21/09/2010).
    • Aretxaga, B. (2000), 'A Fictional Reality: Paramilitary Death Squads and the construction of state terror in Spain', in J. Sluka (ed.) Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    • Ash, TG (1998), 'The Truth about Dictatorship', The New York Review of Books, 45(3), February 19th, 1998.
    • Associated Press. (06/04/2007), accessed at http://africannewsanalysis.blogspot.com/2007/04/president-kagame-releasesformer.html, on 12/02/2011.
    • BBC. (26/04/2000), 'Rwandan Rights Abuses Under Fire', http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/726965.stm, accessed 05/05/2010
    • Bourgois, P. (1996) In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in the El Barrio, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Bourgois, P. (2004), 'The Continuum of Violence in War and Peace: Post-Cold War Lessons from El Salvador', in Scheper-Hughes and P. Bourgois (eds.) Violence in War and Peace: an Anthology, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pg 425-434.
    • Bourgois, P. (2008), 'Forward', In Sanford, V and Angel-Ajaini (eds.) Engaged Observer: Anthropology, Advocacy and Activism, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
    • Brauman, R., S. Smith, and C. Vidal (2000) 'Rwanda: Politique de Terreur, Privilège d'impunité', La Revue Esprit >. Vol. August/September 2000. http://membres.lycos.fr/obsac/OBSV3N30-Rwanda_terreur.html
    • Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006a) 'Dividing and Uniting: The Use of Citizenship Discourses in Conflict and Reconciliation in Rwanda', Global Society, 20(1): 101-113.
    • Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006b) 'Remembering to forget: Chosen amnesia as a strategy for Local Coexistence in Post-Genocide in Rwanda', Africa, 76(2): 131-150.
    • Buckley-Zistel, S. (2009) 'Nation, Narration, Unification? The Politics of History Teaching after the Rwandan Genocide', Journal of Genocide Research, 11(1): 31-53.
    • Burt, J. (2004), Political Violence and the Authoritarian State in Peru: Silencing Civil Society', Palgrave Macmillan.
    • Caplan, G. (2010), 'The Politics of Denialism: The Strange Case of Rwanda', http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/features/65265, 486:(17/06/2010), accessed 24/11/2010.
    • Caplan, P. (2003), 'Introduction: Anthropology and Ethics', in P. Caplan (ed.), The Ethics of Anthropology, London: Routledge.
    • Chrétien, J. P. (1999) 'Mythes et stratégies autour des origines du Rwanda (XIXe-XXe siècles)', in J.-P. Chrétien and J.-L. Triaud (eds.) Histoire d'Afrique : les enjeux de mémoire. (Paris: Karthala).
    • Cohen, S. (1995) 'State Crimes and Previous Regimes: Knowledge, Accountability, and the Policing of the past'. Law and Social Inquiry, 20 (1): 7-50.
    • Corey A. and Joireman S. (2004), 'Retributive Justice: The Gacaca Courts in Rwanda', African Affairs, 103(410): 73-89.
    • Goodale, M. (2006), 'Toward a Critical Anthropology of Human Rights', Current Anthropology 47:3, 485-511
    • Goulding, C. and D. Domic. (2009), 'Heritage, identity and Ideological manipulation: the case of Croatia', Annals of Tourism Research, 36(1): 85-102.
    • Gourevitch, P. (2000), We Wish to Inform you that Tomorrow We will be Killed with Our Families, Picador.
    • Green, L. (1994), 'Fear as a way of Life', Cultural Anthropology, 9(2): 227-256.
    • Green, L. (1995), 'Living in a State of Fear', in C. Nordstrom and A. Robben (eds.), Fieldwork Under Fire, Berkeley: University of California Press
    • Gupta A . and J. Ferguson. (1997) 'Discipline and Practice: 'The Field” as site, method and location in anthropology, in Gupta and Ferguson (eds.) Anthropological Locations: Boundaries and Grounds of Field Science, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Hintjens, H. (2008), 'Reconstructing Political Identities in Rwanda', in eds. P.Clark and Kaufman , After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond. London: Hurst & Company.
    • International Crisis Group. (2003), 'The Kivus: The forgotten crucible of the Congo Conflict', ICG Africa Report, (56): 1-43.
    • Jackson, S. (2003), War Making: Uncertainty, Improvisation and Involution in the Kivu Providences, DR Congo, 1997-2000, PhD Dissertation.
    • Jackson, S. (2006a), 'Sons of which Soil? The Language and Politics of Autochthony in Eastern D.R. Congo', African Studies Review, 49(2): 95-123.
    • Jackson, S. (2006b), 'Borderlands and the Transformation of War Economies: Lessons from the DR Congo', Conflict, Security and Development, 6(3): 425-447
    • Jelin, E. (2003), State Repression and Labors of Memory, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    • Jones, B.D. (2001), Peacemaking in Rwanda: The Dynamics of Failure. London: Lynne Rienner.
    • Kagame, P. (2008), 'Preface', in P. Clark and Kaufman (eds.), After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond. London: Hurst & Company.
    • Kovats-Bernat, J.C. (2002), 'Negotiating Dangerous Fields: Pragmatic Strategies for Fieldwork amid Violence and Terror', American Anthropologist 104(1): 208-222.
    • Kubai, A. (2007) 'Between Justice and Reconciliation: The Survivors of Rwanda'. African Security Review, 16.1: 53-66.
    • Kuperman, A. (2004), 'Provoking Genocide: A Revised History of the Rwandan Patriotic Front, Journal of Genocide Research, 6(1): 61-84.
    • Margold, J. (1999). 'Cultures of Fear and Terror” to Normalization of Violence', Critique of Anthropology, 19(1): 63-88.
    • McLean-Hilker. (2009), 'Everyday Ethnicities: Identity and Reconciliation among Rwanda Youth', Journal of Genocide Research 11 (1): 101-125.
    • Newbury, C. (1988), The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860-1960. New York Columbia University Press.
    • Newbury, D. (1996), 'Convergent catastrophes in Central Africa', Review of African Political Economy, 23(70): 573-576.
    • Pottier, J. (2006), 'Roadblock Ethnography: Negotiating Humanitarian Access in Ituri, Eastern DR Congo, 1999-2004', Africa, 76(2): 151-179
    • Prunier, G. (1997), Rwanda Crisis, 1959-1994: History of a Genocide, London: Hurst & CO.
    • Prunier, G. (2009), Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe, Oxford University Press.
    • Vlassenroot, K. and C. Huggins. (2004), 'Land, Migration, and Conflict in Eastern D.R. Congo', African Centre for Technology Studies, 3(4): 1-4.
    • Vlassenroot, K. and F. Van Acker, (2001), 'War as exit from exclusion?: The formation of Mayi-Mayi militias in Eastern Congo', Afrika Focus, 17(1-2): 51-77.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Download from

Cite this article