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Jones, William David (2005)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: D204, DA
In the 1860s mass emigration from Merthyr Tydfil made a major impact on the town's fortunes and developing public sphere. The ‘extraordinary drain’ occasioned much concern and comment and reconfigured ongoing debates about Merthyr's contemporary condition and future survival. In turn, local power struggles, notions of the town's interests and emerging civic consciousness influenced interpretations of the nature, causes and meanings of the outflow. Emigration and the ‘urban’ thus interacted tellingly to help shape contemporary mentalities.
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    • 3 Jones, 'Merthyr Tydfil - the politics of survival', 240.
    • 4 Cardiff and Merthyr Guardian, 24 Jan. 1863; Merthyr Telegraph, 7 Apr. 1860, 11 Apr. 1863.
    • 5 J. Williams, Digest of Welsh Historical Statistics, 2 vols. (Cardiff, 1985), vol. I, 63.
    • 6 Croll, Civilizing the Urban, 26-8.
    • 7 Jones, 'Merthyr Tydfil - the politics of survival'.
    • 8 Evans, Labyrinth of Flames, 145; Jones, 'Merthyr Tydfil in 1850', 32-4.
    • 9 Croll, Civilizing the Urban, passim; Ieuan Gwynedd Jones, 'The Merthyr of Henry Richard', in Glanmor Williams (ed.), Merthyr Politics: The Making of a Working-Class Tradition (Cardiff, 1966); idem, 'Merthyr Tydfil - the politics of survival'.
    • 10 W. Edmunds, Traethawd ar Hanes Plwyf Merthyr (Aberdare, 1864); C. Wilkins, The History of Merthyr Tydfil, 1st edn (Merthyr, 1867).
    • 11 Croll, Civilizing the Urban, 42-3. These include Telegraph (1855-81), Merthyr and Aberdare Times (1858-59), Merthyr Star (1859-72), Merthyr Express (commenced 1864), Y Fellten (Lightning Bolt) (1868-76) and Amddiffynydd y Gweithiwr/Workman's Advocate (1873-75). Newspapers such as the Aberdare Times, Baner ac Amserau Cymru (The Banner and Times
    • 19 See, for instance, Baner ac Amserau Cymru, 25 Jun. 1862.
    • 20 For a fuller discussion, see B. Jones, 'Raising the Wind': Emigrating from Wales to the USA in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (Cardiff, 2004); A. Conway, 'Welsh emigration to the United States', in D. Fleming and B. Bailyn (eds.), Dislocation and Emigration: The Social Background of American Immigration, Perspectives in American History 7 (Cambridge, MA, 1974).
    • 21 D. Baines, Emigration from Europe, 1815-1930, 2nd edn (Cambridge, 1995); C. Pooley and J. Turnbull, Migration and Mobility in Britain since the Eighteenth Century (London, 1998); Eric Richards, Britannia's Children: Emigration from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland since 1600 (London, 2004).
    • 22 Conway, 'Welsh emigration to the United States', 244-59; W.R. Johnston, 'The Welsh diaspora: emigrating around the world in the late nineteenth century', Llafur, 6, 2 (1993), 50-74; Jones, 'Raising the Wind'; Strange, 'Condition of the working classes'; L. Walker, '“Two jobs for every man”: the emigration decision from Wales to New South Wales, 1850-1900', Australian Studies, 13, 2 (1998), 99-118.
    • 23 D. Baines, Migration in a Mature Economy: Emigration and Internal Migration in England and Wales, 1861-1900 (Cambridge, 1985); Pooley and Turnbull, Migration and Mobility; B. Thomas, Migration and Urban Development (London, 1972).
    • 24 Evans, Labyrinth of Flames, 156-7; Express, 30 Apr. 1881.
    • 25 M. Williams, 'Dowlais', in G. Parry and M.A. Williams (eds.), The Welsh Language and the 1891 Census (Cardiff, 1999), 195. For comparison, see S.R. Williams, Oes y Byd i'r Iaith Gymraeg: Y Gymraeg yn Ardal Ddiwydiannol Sir Fynwy yn y Bedwaredd Ganrif ar Bymtheg (Cardiff, 1992), 23-4, 26-9. Dowlais is located two miles to the north-east of Merthyr. Although in many respects it developed as a distinct urban settlement during the nineteenth century, it was also regarded as a part of Merthyr.
    • 26 Cardiff Times, 20 Mar. 1869.
    • 27 Cardiff and Merthyr Guardian, 17 Jan. 1863, 27 Mar. 1863; Telegraph, 7 Apr. 1860, 11 Apr. 1863.
    • 60 P. O'Leary, 'Skill and workplace in an industrial economy: the Irish in South Wales', in J. Belchem and K. Tenfelde (eds.), Irish and Polish Migration in Comparative Perspective (Essen, 2003).
    • 61 Telegraph, 19 Sep. 1863; Express, 16 May 1868.
    • 62 Telegraph, 11 Apr. 1863.
    • 63 Y Drych, 28 Jul. 1870: 'scum gweithfeydd Cymru . . . yn ail i Sodom'. See also W.D. Jones, Wales in America: Scranton and the Welsh, 1860-1920 (Cardiff, 1993), 203-22.
    • 64 Telegraph, 29 Aug. 1863; Express, 16 May 1868.
    • 65 Star, 6 Jun., 25 Apr., 4 Aug. 1863, 24 Mar. 1868; Y Fellten, 6 Mar., 10 Apr. 1869.
    • 66 Evans, Labyrinth of Flames,145-77; Jones, 'Merthyr Tydfil - the politics of survival'.
    • 67 See, for instance, Star, 7 Jan. 1864; Express, 23 May 1868, 29 May 1869. For a fuller discussion, see Jones, 'Raising the Wind', 25-7.
    • 68 Aberdare Times, 7 Jun. 1862; Y Byd Cymreig, 20 Apr. 1865; Cardiff and Merthyr Guardian, 6 Jun. 1868, 27 Mar. 1869; Express, 16 May 1868.
    • 69 Express, 16 May 1868.
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