Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Journal: Conservation Biology
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Contributed Papers, sensitive questions, compliance, UCT, poaching, unmatched-count technique, uncertainty, indirect questioning
Assessing anthropogenic effects on biological diversity, identifying drivers of human behavior, and motivating behavioral change are at the core of effective conservation. Yet knowledge of people?s behaviors is often limited because the true extent of natural resource exploitation is difficult to ascertain, particularly if it is illegal. To obtain estimates of rule-breaking behavior, a technique has been developed with which to ask sensitive questions. We used this technique, unmatched-count technique (UCT), to provide estimates of bushmeat poaching, to determine motivation and seasonal and spatial distribution of poaching, and to characterize poaching households in the Serengeti. We also assessed the potential for survey biases on the basis of respondent perceptions of understanding, anonymity, and discomfort. Eighteen percent of households admitted to being involved in hunting. Illegal bushmeat hunting was more likely in households with seasonal or full-time employment, lower household size, and longer household residence in the village. The majority of respondents found the UCT questions easy to understand and were comfortable answering them. Our results suggest poaching remains widespread in the Serengeti and current alternative sources of income may not be sufficiently attractive to compete with the opportunities provided by hunting. We demonstrate that the UCT is well suited to investigating noncompliance in conservation because it reduces evasive responses, resulting in more accurate estimates, and is technically simple to apply. We suggest that the UCT could be more widely used, with the trade-off being the increased complexity of data analyses and requirement for large sample sizes.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Bitanyi, S, Nesje, M, Kusiluka, LJM, Chenyambuga, SW, Kaltenborn, BP. Awareness and perceptions of local people about wildlife hunting in western Serengeti communities. Tropical Conservation Science. 2012; 5: 208-224
    • Blair, G, Imai, K. Statistical analysis of list experiments. Political Analysis. 2012; 20: 47-77
    • Bunnefeld, N, Hoshino, E, Milner-Gulland, EJ. Management strategy evaluation: A powerful tool for conservation?. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 2011; 26: 441-447
    • Burnham, KP, Anderson, DR. Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. 2002: 488
    • Campbell, K, Hofer, H, Sinclair, ARE, Arcese, P. People and wildlife: spatial dynamics and zones of interaction. Serengeti II: dynamics, management, and conservation of an ecosystem. 1995: 534-570
    • Campbell, K, Nelson, V, Loibooki, M. Sustainable use of wildland resources: ecological, economic and social interactions. An analysis of illegal hunting of wildlife in Serengeti National Park. U.K. 2001
    • Christensen, RHB. ordinal—Regression models for ordinal data. 2012
    • Coutts, E, Jann, B. Sensitive questions in online surveys: experimental results for the randomized response technique (RRT) and the unmatched count technique (UCT). Sociological Methods & Research. 2011; 40: 169-193
    • Damania, R, Milner-Gulland, EJ, Crookes, DJ. A bioeconomic analysis of bushmeat hunting. Proceedings of the. Biological Sciences/The Royal Society. 2005; 272: 259-266
    • Danielsen, F, Mendoza, MM, Alviola, PA, Balete, DS, Enghoff, M, Poulsen, MK, Jensen, AE. Biodiversity monitoring in developing countries: What are we trying to achieve?. Oryx. 2003; 37: 407-409
    • Droitcour, J, Caspar, RA, Hubbard, ML, Parsley, TL, Visscher, W, Sudman, S, Ezzati, TM, Biemer, PP, Groves, RM, Lyberg, LE, Mathiowetz, NA. The item count technique as a method of indirect questioning: a review of its development and a case study application. Measurement errors in surveys. 1991: 185-210
    • Estimating irregular migration in a survey: the “two-card follow–up” method. U.N. Sixth coordination meeting on international migration. 2007
    • Gavin, MC, Solomon, JN, Blank, SG. Measuring and monitoring illegal use of natural resources. Conservation Biology. 2010; 24: 89-100
    • Hilborn, R, Arcese, P, Borner, M, Hando, J, Hopcraft, JGC, Loibooki, M, Mduma, S, Sinclair, ARE. Effective enforcement in a conservation area. Science. 2006; 314: 1266
    • Hofer, H, Campbell, K, East, ML, Huish, SA, Taylor, VJ, Dunstone, N. The impact of game meat hunting on target and non-target species in the Serengeti. The exploitation of mammal populations. 1996: 117-146
    • Holbrook, AL, Krosnick, JA. Social desirability bias in voter turnout reports: tests using the item count technique. Public Opinion Quarterly. 2010; 74: 37-67
    • Holmern, T, Muya, J, Røskaft, E. Local law enforcement and illegal bushmeat hunting outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation. 2007; 34: 55-63
    • Holmern, T, Røskaft, E, Mbaruka, J, Mkama, SY, Muya, J. Uneconomical game cropping in a community-based conservation project outside the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Oryx. 2002; 36: 364-372
    • Holmes, CM. The influence of protected area outreach on conservation attitudes and resource use patterns: a case study from western Tanzania. Oryx. 2003; 37: 305-315
    • Hubbard, ML, Caspar, RA, Lessler, JT. Respondent reactions to item count lists and randomized response. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Section for Survey Research Methods. 1989: 544-548
    • Johannesen, AB. Wildlife conservation policies and incentives to hunt: an empirical analysis of illegal hunting in western Serengeti, Tanzania. Environment and Development Economics. 2005; 10: 271-292
    • John, FAV, Edwards-Jones, G, Gibbons, JM, Jones, JPG. Testing novel methods for assessing rule breaking in conservation. Biological Conservation. 2010; 143: 1025-1030
    • John, FAV, Keane, A, Edwards-Jones, G, Jones, L, Yarnell, RW, Jones, JPG. Identifying indicators of illegal behaviour: carnivore killing in human-managed landscapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 2012; 279: 804-812
    • Kaltenborn, BP, Nyahongo, JW, Tingstad, KM. The nature of hunting around the western corridor of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. European Journal of Wildlife Research. 2005; 51: 213-222
    • Keane, A, Jones, JPG, Edwards-Jones, G, Milner-Gulland, EJ. The sleeping policeman: understanding issues of enforcement and compliance in conservation. Animal Conservation. 2008; 11: 75-82
    • Keith, DA, Martin, TG, McDonald-Madden, E, Walters, C. Uncertainty and adaptive management for biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation. 2011; 144: 1175-1178
    • Knapp, EJ. Who poaches? Household economies of illegal hunters in Western Serengeti, Tanzania. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 2007; 12: 195-196
    • Knapp, EJ. Why poaching pays: a summary of risks and benefits illegal hunters face in Western Serengeti, Tanzania. Tropical Conservation Science. 2012; 5: 434-445
    • Knapp, EJ, Rentsch, D, Schmitt, J, Lewis, C, Polasky, S. A tale of three villages: choosing an effective method for assessing poaching levels in western Serengeti, Tanzania. Oryx. 2010; 44: 178-184
    • Landsheer, JA, Van Der Heijden, P, Van Gils, G. Trust and understanding, two psychological aspects of randomized response. Quality & Quantity. 1999; 33: 1-12
    • Loibooki, M, Hofer, H, Campbell, K, East, ML. Bushmeat hunting by communities adjacent to the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania: the importance of livestock ownership and alternative sources of protein and income. Environmental Conservation. 2002; 29: 391-398
    • Lowassa, A, Tadie, D, Fischer, A. On the role of women in bushmeat hunting – Insights from Tanzania and Ethiopia. Journal of Rural Studies. 2012; 28: 622-630
    • Mateo-Tomás, P, Olea, PP, Sánchez-Barbudo, IS, Mateo, R. Alleviating human–wildlife conflicts: identifying the causes and mapping the risk of illegal poisoning of wild fauna. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2012; 49: 376-385
    • Mduma, S, Hilborn, R, Brown, ND, Sinclair, ARE, Newberry, DM, Prins, HHT. Limits to exploitation of Serengeti wildebeest and implications for its management. Dynamics of Tropical Communities. 1998: 243-265
    • Mfunda, IM, Røskaft, E. Bushmeat hunting in Serengeti, Tanzania: an important economic activity to local people. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 2010; 2: 263-272
    • Milner-Gulland, EJ. Interactions between human behaviour and ecological systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences. 2012; 367: 270-278
    • Moro, M, Fischer, A, Czajkowski, M, Brennan, D, Lowassa, A, Naiman, LC, Hanley, N. An investigation using the choice experiment method into options for reducing illegal bushmeat hunting in western Serengeti. Conservation Letters. 2013; 6: 37-45
    • Tanzania census 2002 – analytical report. 2006
    • Ndibalema, VG, Songorwa, AN. Illegal meat hunting in Serengeti: dynamics in consumption and preferences. African Journal of Ecology. 2008; 46: 311-319
    • Nelson, F, Nshala, R, Rodgers, WA. The Evolution and Reform of Tanzanian Wildlife Management. Conservation and Society. 2007; 5: 232-261
    • Nielsen, MR. Importance, cause and effect of bushmeat hunting in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania: implications for community based wildlife management. Biological Conservation. 2006; 128: 509-516
    • Nielsen, MR, Pouliot, M, Kim Bakkegaard, R. Combining income and assets measures to include the transitory nature of poverty in assessments of forest dependence: evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ecological Economics. 2012; 78: 37-46
    • Pinheiro, J, Bates, D. Mixed-effects models in S and S-Plus. 2000: 528
    • Razafimanahaka, JH, Jenkins, RKB, Andriafidison, D, Randrianandrianina, F, Rakotomboavonjy, V, Keane, A, Jones, JPG. Novel approach for quantifying illegal bushmeat consumption reveals high consumption of protected species in Madagascar. Oryx. 2012; 46: 584-592
    • Sinclair, ARE, Hopcraft, JGC, Olff, H, Mduma, S, Galvin, Ka, Sinclair, ARE, Packer, C, Sharam, GJ. Historical and future changes to the Serengeti ecosystem. Serengeti III: human impacts on ecosystem dynamics. 2008: 7-46
    • Solomon, JN, Jacobson, S, Wald, KD, Gavin, MC. Estimating illegal resource use at a Ugandan park with the randomized response technique. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 2007; 12: 75-88
    • Thirgood, SJ, Mosser, A, Tham, S, Hopcraft, JGC, Mwangomo, E, Mlengeya, T, Kilewo, M, Fryxell, JM, Sinclair, ARE, Borner, M. Can parks protect migratory ungulates? The case of the Serengeti wildebeest. Animal Conservation. 2004; 7: 113-120
    • Tsuchiya, T, Hirai, Y, Ono, S. A study of the properties of the item count technique. Public Opinion Quarterly. 2007; 71: 253-272
    • Warner, SL. Randomized Response: a survey technique for eliminating evasive answer bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 1965; 60: 63-69
    • Wimbush, J, Dalton, D. Base rate for employee theft: convergence of multiple methods. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1997; 82: 756-763
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • FCT | SFRH/BD/43186/2008

Cite this article