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Sophie Litzler (2010)
Publisher: Université des Antilles
Journal: Études Caribéennes
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: tortue marine, sea turtle, Développement durable, Algae, mangrove, Latin America. Spanish America, fishery resource, récif corallien, protected area, F1201-3799, Algoculture, Algal culture, marine ecosystem, ecosystème marin, Ressource halieutique, algue, aire protégée, H, Algues, pêche, Sustainable development, Social Sciences, fishery, coral reef, Halieutic resources, Littoral, Coastal
L’algue est une ressource marine peu étudiée par la géographie ; elle offre pourtant des potentialités de développement économique. Les macro-algues cultivées à des fins alimentaires sont une alternative à la pêche. Les micro-algues constituent une biomasse valorisable : molécule pharmaceutique, Oméga 3 et biocarburants. De ces différents usages naît la question suivante : les algues sont-elles une ressource marine à exploiter pour développer durablement les territoires de la zone intertropicale ? Nous présenterons tout d’abord l’algoculture à l’échelle mondiale en soulignant le faible poids de cette activité dans le bassin caribéen. Puis nous montrerons que l’algoculture s’inscrit dans un processus de développement durable en assurant un revenu à des communautés rurales (Petites Antilles). Enfin, dans une approche comparative (États-Unis), nous verrons que l’espace caribéen est une région de projets et d’aménagements durables qui a des atouts pour développer l’algoculture : exposition solaire, hautes températures, proximité de la recherche américaine.
Algae as sea resource have not been largely explored in Geography, yet it offers the potential for economic development. Macro-algae are cultivated for food purposes and they can substitute for fishing. Micro-algae can be valued as biomass: “nutraceutics”, Omega 3, biofuel. These various utilizations raise a question: are algae a key to a sustainable development in intertropical islands? We shall present Algaculture on a global scale, while emphasizing its low importance in the Caribbean. Then we shall show how algaculture can be part of a process of sustainable development by providing revenue to rural communities (Lesser Antilles). Finally, in a comparative approach (with the US), we shall see that the Caribbean Region has a number of assets for algaculture that make it suitable for sustainable projects and infrastructures: solar exposure, high temperatures, close to the US research centers.
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