Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Atijosan, Oluwarantimi; Rischewski, Dorothea; Simms, Victoria; Kuper, Hannah; Linganwa, Bonaventure; Nuhi, Assuman; Foster, Allen; Lavy, Chris (2008)
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal: PLoS ONE
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Q, R, Research Article, Science, Evidence-Based Healthcare, Medicine, Public Health and Epidemiology/Global Health, Surgery/Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
BACKGROUND: Accurate information on the prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment (MSI) is lacking in low income countries. We present a new survey methodology that is based on sound epidemiological principles and is linked to the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning. METHODS: Clusters were selected with probability proportionate to size. Households were selected within clusters through compact segment sampling. 105 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were included. All participants were screened for MSI by a physiotherapist and medical assistant. Possible cases plus a random sample of 10% of non-MSI cases were examined further to ascertain diagnosis, aetiology, quality of life, and treatment needs. FINDINGS: 6757 of 8368 enumerated individuals (80.8%) were screened. There were 352 cases, giving an overall prevalence for MSI of 5.2%. (95% CI 4.5-5.9) The prevalence of MSI increased with age and was similar in men and women. Extrapolating these estimates, there are approximately 488,000 MSI diagnoses in Rwanda. Only 8.2% of MSI cases were severe, while the majority were moderate (43.7%) or mild (46.3%). Diagnostic categories comprised 11.5% congenital, 31.3% trauma, 3.8% infection, 9.0% neurological, and 44.4% non-traumatic non infective acquired. The most common individual diagnoses were joint disease (13.3%), angular limb deformity (9.7%) and fracture mal- and non-union (7.2%). 96% of all cases required further treatment. INTERPRETATION: This survey demonstrates a large burden of MSI in Rwanda, which is mostly untreated. The survey methodology will be useful in other low income countries, to assist with planning services and monitoring trends.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • 1. Biritwum RB, Devres JP, Ofosu-Amaah S, Marfo C, Essah ER (2001) Prevalence of children with disabilities in central region, Ghana. West Afr J Med 20: 249-255.
    • 2. Tamrat G, Kebede Y, Alemu S, Moore J (2001) The prevalence and characteristics of physical and sensory disabilities in Northern Ethiopia. Disabil Rehabil 23: 799-804.
    • 3. Disler PB, Jacks E, Sayed AR, Rip MR, Hurford S, et al. (1986) The prevalence of locomotor disability and handicap in the Cape Peninsula. Part I. The coloured population of Bishop Lavis. S Afr Med J 69: 349-52.
    • 4. McLaren PA, Gear JS, Irwig LM, Smit AE (1987) Prevalence of motor impairment and disability in a rural community in KwaZulu. Int Rehabil Med 8: 98-104.
    • 5. United Nations (2008) Human Functioning and Disability. Available: http:// unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sconcerns/disability/ Accessed 2007 Dec 12.
    • 6. Chopra A (2004) COPCORD-an unrecognised fountainhead of community rheumatology in developing countries. J Rheumatol 31: 2320-2321.
    • 7. World Health Organisation (2001) International Classification of Functioning disability and Health. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
    • 8. World Health Organisation (2002) Disability and Rehabilitation: Future Trends and Challenges in Rehabilitation. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
    • 9. Helander E (1999) Prejudice and Dignity: an introduction to Community Based Rehabilitation. New York: UNDP.
    • 10. Handicap International, Ministe`re de la Re´habilitation et l'Inte´gration Sociale, Ministe`re du Travail et des Affaires Sociales (1995) Enqueˆte Nationale sur l'Ampleur du Handicap au Rwanda : Re´sultats et recommandations pour l'e´laboration d'un plan. Kigali: Handicap International.
    • 11. Government of Rwanda (2003) Third General Census of Population and Housing of Rwanda. Final results: Statistical Tables. Kigali, Government of Rwanda.
    • 12. Turner AG, Magnani RJ, Shuaib M (1996) ''A not quite as quick but much cleaner alternative to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Cluster Survey design.'' Int J Epidemiol 25: 198-203.
    • 13. Atijosan O, Kuper H, Rischewski D, Simms V, Lavy C (2007) Musculoskeletal impairment survey in Rwanda: Design of survey tool, survey methodology, and results of pilot study (a cross sectional survey) BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 8: 30.
    • 14. Rabin R, de Charro F (2001) EQ-5D: a measure of health status from the EuroQol Group. Ann Med 33: 337-43.
    • 15. Mkandawire NC, Kaunda E (2004) Incidence and patterns of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) deformity at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi. East Cent Afr J Surg 2: 2-31.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article