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Peel , M. C.; Finlayson , B. L.; Mcmahon , T. A. (2007)
Publisher: European Geosciences Union
Journal: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: DOAJ:Earth and Environmental Sciences, [ SDU.ENVI ] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Continental interfaces, environment, [ SDU.OCEAN ] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Ocean, Atmosphere, G, Geography. Anthropology. Recreation, Technology, Physical geography, TD1-1066, [ SDU.STU ] Sciences of the Universe [physics]/Earth Sciences, DOAJ:Geography, T, GE1-350, DOAJ:Environmental Sciences, GB3-5030, Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering, Environmental sciences
Although now over 100 years old, the classification of climate originally formulated by Wladimir Köppen and modified by his collaborators and successors, is still in widespread use. It is widely used in teaching school and undergraduate courses on climate. It is also still in regular use by researchers across a range of disciplines as a basis for climatic regionalisation of variables and for assessing the output of global climate models. Here we have produced a new global map of climate using the Köppen-Geiger system based on a large global data set of long-term monthly precipitation and temperature station time series. Climatic variables used in the Köppen-Geiger system were calculated at each station and interpolated between stations using a two-dimensional (latitude and longitude) thin-plate spline with tension onto a 0.1&deg;&times;0.1&deg; grid for each continent. We discuss some problems in dealing with sites that are not uniquely classified into one climate type by the Köppen-Geiger system and assess the outcomes on a continent by continent basis. Globally the most common climate type by land area is BWh (14.2%, Hot desert) followed by Aw (11.5%, Tropical savannah). The updated world Köppen-Geiger climate map is freely available electronically at <aref="http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/????">http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/????<a>.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Barnett, T., Zwiers, F., Hegerl, G., Allen, M., Crowley, T., Gillett, N., Hasselmann, K., Jones, P., Santer, B., Schnur, R., Stott, P., Taylor, K., and Tett. S.: Detecting and attributing external influences on the climate system: a review of recent advances, J. Climate, 18, 1291-1314, 2005.
    • Daly, C.: Guidelines for assessing the suitability of spatial climate data sets, Int. J. Climatol., 26, 707-721, 2006.
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    • Fraedrich, K., Gerstengarbe, F. -W. and Werner, P. C.: Climate shifts during the last century, Climatic Change, 50, 405-417, 2001.
    • Gentilli, J. (Ed.): Climates of Australia and New Zealand, World Survey of Climatology, Vol. 13. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 405p, 1971.
    • Gnandesikan, A. and Stouffer, R. J.: Diagnosing atmosphere-ocean general circulation model errors relevant to the terrestrial biosphere using the Ko¨ppen climate classification, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L22701, doi:10.1029/2006GL028098, 2006.
    • Kalvova, J., Halenka, T., Bezpalcova, K., and Nemesova, I.: Ko¨ppen Climate types in observed and simulated climates, Stud. Geophys. Geod., 47, 185-202, 2003.
    • Kleidon, A., Fraedrich, K., and Heimann, M.: A green planet versus a desert world: estimating the maximum effect of vegetation on the land surface climate, Climatic Change, 44, 471-493, 2000.
    • Ko¨ppen, W.: Das geographisca System der Klimate, in: Handbuch der Klimatologie, edited by: Ko¨ppen, W. and Geiger, G., 1. C. Gebr, Borntraeger, 1-44, 1936.
    • Kottek, M., Grieser, J., Beck, C., Rudolf, B., and Rubel, F.: World map of the Ko¨ppen-Geiger climate classification updated, Meteorol. Zeitschr., 15(3), 259-263, 2006.
    • Lohmann, U., Sausen, R., Bengtsson, L., Cubasch, U., Perlwitz, J., and Roeckner, E.: The Ko¨ppen climate classification as a diagnostic tool for general circulation models, Clim. Res., 3, 177- 193, 1993.
    • McMahon, T. A., Finlayson, B. L., Haines, A. T., and Srikanthan, R.: Global Runoff - Continental Comparisons of Annual Flows and Peak Discharges, Catena Verlag, Cremlingen, 166pp, 1992.
    • Mitas, L. and Mitasova, H.: General variational approach to the interpolation problem, Comput. Math. Applic., 16, 983-992, 1988.
    • Peel, M. C., McMahon, T. A., and Finlayson, B. L.: Continental differences in the variability of annual runoff - update and reassessment, J. Hydrol., 295, 185-197, 2004.
    • Peterson, T. C. and Vose, R. S.: An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network temperature database, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78(12), 2837-2849, 1997.
    • Russell, R. J.: Dry climates of the United States: I climatic map, University of California, Publications in Geography, 5, 1-41, 1931.
    • Sanderson, M.: The classification of climates from Pythagoras to Koeppen, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 80, 669-673, 1999.
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    • Strahler, A. H. and Strahler, A. N.: Physical Geography : Science and Systems of the Human Environment. Wiley, New York, 794pp, 2005.
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    • Triantafyllou, G. N. and Tsonis, A. A.: Assessing the ability of the Ko¨ppen system to delineate the general world pattern of climates, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(25), 2809-2812, 1994.
    • USGS (2000), HYDRO1k, http://edc.usgs.gov/products/elevation/ gtopo30/hydro/ (accessed 16/10/2006).
    • Wang, M. and Overland, J. E.: Detecting Arctic climate change using Ko¨ppen climate classification, Climatic Change, 67, 43- 62, 2004.
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