Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Review Articles, net ecosystem carbon balance, greenhouse gas exchange, Research Review, savanna, biomass burning, climate feedbacks
ddc: ddc:570
Savanna ecosystems comprise 22% of the global terrestrial surface and 25% of Australia (almost 1.9 million km2) and provide significant ecosystem services through carbon and water cycles and the maintenance of biodiversity. The current structure, composition and distribution of Australian savannas have coevolved with fire, yet remain driven by the dynamic constraints of their bioclimatic niche. Fire in Australian savannas influences both the biophysical and biogeochemical processes at multiple scales from leaf to landscape. Here, we present the latest emission estimates from Australian savanna biomass burning and their contribution to global greenhouse gas budgets. We then review our understanding of the impacts of fire on ecosystem function and local surface water and heat balances, which in turn influence regional climate. We show how savanna fires are coupled to the global climate through the carbon cycle and fire regimes. We present new research that climate change is likely to alter the structure and function of savannas through shifts in moisture availability and increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, in turn altering fire regimes with further feedbacks to climate. We explore opportunities to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions from savanna ecosystems through changes in savanna fire management.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Abramson, D, Lynch, A, Takemiya, H, Turner, SJ, Lee, BS, Wentong, C. Deploying scientific applications to the PRAGMA grid testbed: strategies and lessons. Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGRID'06). 2006: 241-248
    • Andersen, AN, Cook, GD, Corbett, LK. Fire frequency and biodiversity conservation in Australian tropical savannas: implications from the Kapalga fire experiment. Austral Ecology. 2005; 30: 155-167
    • Anderson, IC, Poth, MA. Controls on fluxes of trace gases from Brazilian cerrado soils. Journal of Environment Quality. 1998; 27: 1117
    • Andersson, M. Soil emissions of nitrous oxide in fire-prone African savannas. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2003; 108: 4630
    • 2013
    • Arneth, A, Sitch, S, Bondeau, A. From biota to chemistry and climate: towards a comprehensive description of trace gas exchange between the biosphere and atmosphere. Biogeosciences. 2010; 7: 121-149
    • Attiwill, PM, Adams, MA. Nutrient cycling in forests. New Phytologist. 1993; 124: 561-582
    • Barrett, DJ. Steady state turnover time of carbon in the Australian terrestrial biosphere. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2002; 16: 55–1-55–21
    • Barrett, DJ, Hill, MJ, Hanan, NP. Timescales and dynamics of carbon in Australia's savannas. Ecosystem Function in Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales. 2011: 347-366
    • Bass, AM, O’ Grady, D, Berkin, C, Leblanc, M, Tweed, S, Nelson, PN, Bird, MI. High diurnal variation in dissolved inorganic C, δ13C values and surface efflux of CO2 in a seasonal tropical floodplain. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 2013; 11: 399-405
    • Bastin, G. ACRIS Livestock Density Update 2003–2008. 2008
    • Beringer, J, Tapper, N. Surface energy exchanges and interactions with thunderstorms during the Maritime Continent Thunderstorm Experiment (MCTEX). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2002; 107: 4552
    • Beringer, J, Packham, D, Tapper, NJ. Biomass burning and resulting emissions in the Northern Territory, Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1995; 5: 229-235
    • Beringer, J, Hutley, LB, Tapper, NJ, Coutts, A, Kerley, A, O'Grady, AP. Fire impacts on surface heat, moisture and carbon fluxes from a tropical savanna in northern Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2003; 12: 333-340
    • Beringer, J, Hutley, LB, Tapper, NJ, Cernusak, LA. Savanna fires and their impact on net ecosystem productivity in North Australia. Global Change Biology. 2007; 13: 990-1004
    • Beringer, J, Hacker, J, Hutley, LB. SPECIAL – savanna patterns of energy and carbon integrated across the landscape. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2011a; 92: 1467-1485
    • Beringer, J, Hutley, LB, Hacker, JM. Patterns and processes of carbon, water and energy cycles across northern Australian landscapes: from point to region. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2011b; 151: 1409-1416
    • Betts, AK. Land-surface-atmosphere coupling in observations and models. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. 2009; 1: 1-18
    • Bonan, GB. Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science. 2008; 320: 1444-1449
    • Bowman, DMJS, Balch, JK, Artaxo, P. Fire in the earth system. Science (New York, N.Y.). 2009; 324: 481-484
    • Bowman, DMJS, Brown, GK, Braby, MF. Biogeography of the Australian monsoon tropics. Journal of Biogeography. 2010; 37: 201-216
    • Bustamante, MMC, Medina, E, Asner, GP, Nardoto, GB, Garcia-Montiel, DC, Martinelli, LA, Howarth, RW. Nitrogen cycling in tropical and temperate savannas. Nitrogen Cycling in the Americas: Natural and Anthropogenic Influences and Controls. 2006: 209-237
    • Castaldi, S, Ermice, A, Strumia, S. Fluxes of N2O and CH4 from soils of savannas and seasonally-dry ecosystems. Journal of Biogeography. 2006; 33: 401-415
    • Castaldi, S, de Grandcourt, A, Rasile, A, Skiba, U, Valentini, R. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from soil of burned grassland savannah of central Africa. Biogeosciences Discussions. 2010; 7: 4089-4126
    • Cernusak, LA, Hutley, LB, Beringer, J, Tapper, NJ. Stem and leaf gas exchange and their responses to fire in a north Australian tropical savanna. Plant Cell and Environment. 2006; 29: 632-646
    • Cernusak, LA, Tcherkez, G, Keitel, C. Why are non-photosynthetic tissues generally 13 C enriched compared with leaves in C 3 plants? Review and synthesis of current hypotheses. Functional Plant Biology. 2009; 36: 199
    • Cernusak, LA, Hutley, LB, Beringer, J, Holtum, JAM, Turner, BL. Photosynthetic physiology of eucalypts along a sub-continental rainfall gradient in northern Australia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2011; 151: 1462-1470
    • Chambers, SD, Beringer, J, Randerson, JT, Chapin, FS. Fire effects on net radiation and energy partitioning: contrasting responses of tundra and boreal forest ecosystems. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 2005; 110: 9106
    • Chapin, FS, Woodwell, GM, Randerson, JT. Reconciling carbon-cycle concepts, terminology, and methods. Ecosystems. 2006; 9: 1041-1050
    • Chen, X, Hutley, LB, Eamus, D. Carbon balance of a tropical savanna of northern Australia. Oecologia. 2003; 137: 405-416
    • Choinski, JS, Ralph, P, Eamus, D. Changes in photosynthesis during leaf expansion in Corymbia gummifera. Australian Journal of Botany. 2003; 51: 111
    • Ciais, P, Bombelli, A, Williams, M. The carbon balance of Africa: synthesis of recent research studies. Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences. 2011; 369: 2038-2057
    • Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Early Dry Season Savanna Burning—1.1) Methodology Determination 2013. 2013
    • Cook, GD, Goyens, CMAC. The impact of wind on trees in Australian tropical savannas: lessons from Cyclone Monica. Austral Ecology. 2008; 33: 462-470
    • Cook, GD, Heerdegen, RG. Spatial variation in the duration of the rainy season in monsoonal Australia. Journal of Climatology. 2001; 21: 1723-1732
    • Cook, G, Meyer, C, Russell-Smith, J, Whitehead, PJ, Cooke, P. Fire, fuels and greenhouse gases. Culture, Ecology and Economy of Savanna Fire Management in Northern Australia: Rekindling the Wurrk Tradition. 2009: 313-327
    • Eamus, D, Myers, B, Duff, G, Williams, D. Seasonal changes in photosynthesis of eight savanna tree species. Tree Physiology. 1999; 19: 665-671
    • Eamus, D, Hutley, LB, O'Grady, AP. Daily and seasonal patterns of carbon and water fluxes above a north Australian savanna. Tree Physiology. 2001; 21: 977-988
    • Eck, TF. Variability of biomass burning aerosol optical characteristics in southern Africa during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign and a comparison of single scattering albedo estimates from radiometric measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2003; 108: 8477
    • Evans, JP, Pitman, AJ, Cruz, FT. Coupled atmospheric and land surface dynamics over southeast Australia: a review, analysis and identification of future research priorities. International Journal of Climatology. 2011; 31: 1758-1772
    • Finlayson-Pitts, BJ. Tropospheric air pollution: ozone, airborne toxics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particles. Science. 1997; 276: 1045-1051
    • Fox, ID, Neldner, VJ, Wilson, GW. The Vegetation of the Australian Tropical Savannas. 2001
    • Görgen, K, Lynch, AH, Marshall, AG, Beringer, J. Impact of abrupt land cover changes by savanna fire on northern Australian climate. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2006; 111: 19106
    • Govaerts, YM. Impact of fires on surface albedo dynamics over the African continent. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2002; 107: 4629
    • Grace, J, San Jose, J, Meir, P, Miranda, HS, Montes, RA, Jose, JS. Productivity and carbon fluxes of tropical savannas. Journal of Biogeography. 2006; 33: 387-400
    • Hanan, N, Hill, MJ. Savannas in a Changing Earth System: The NASA Terrestrial Ecology Tree-Grass Project. 2012
    • Hao, WM, Liu, M-H. Spatial and temporal distribution of tropical biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 1994; 8: 495-503
    • Hao, WM, Liu, M-H, Crutzen, PJ, Goldammer, JG. Estimates of annual and regional releases of CO2, and other trace gases to the atmosphere from fires in the tropics, based on FAO statistics for the period 1975–1980. Fire in the Tropical Biota, Ecological Studies 84. 1990: 440-462
    • Haverd, V, Cuntz, M. Soil–Litter–Iso: a one-dimensional model for coupled transport of heat, water and stable isotopes in soil with a litter layer and root extraction. Journal of Hydrology. 2010; 388: 438-455
    • Haverd, V, Raupach, MR, Briggs, PR. Multiple observation types reduce uncertainty in Australia's terrestrial carbon and water cycles. Biogeosciences. 2013a; 10: 2011-2040
    • Haverd, V, Raupach, MR, Briggs, PR. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget. Biogeosciences. 2013b; 10: 851-869
    • Holt, JA, Coventry, RJ. Nutrient cycling in Australian savannas. Journal of Biogeography. 1990; 17: 427-432
    • House, JI, Archer, S, Breshears, DD, Scholes, RJ. Conundrums in mixed woody-herbaceous plant systems. Journal of Biogeography. 2003; 30: 1763-1777
    • Hutley, LB, Beringer, J, Hill, MJ, Hanan, NP. Disturbance and climatic drivers of carbon dynamics of a north Australian tropical savanna. Ecosystem Function in Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales. 2011: 57-75
    • Hutley, LB, O'Grady, AP, Eamus, D. Evapotranspiration from Eucalypt open-forest savanna of Northern Australia. Functional Ecology. 2000; 14: 183-194
    • Hutley, LB, Leuning, R, Beringer, J, Cleugh, HA. The utility of the eddy covariance techniques as a tool in carbon accounting: tropical savanna as a case study. Australian Journal of Botany. 2005; 53: 663
    • Hutley, LB, Beringer, J, Isaac, PR, Hacker, JM, Cernusak, LA. A sub-continental scale living laboratory: spatial patterns of savanna vegetation over a rainfall gradient in northern Australia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2011; 151: 1417-1428
    • Hutley, LB, Evans, BJ, Beringer, J, Cook, GD, Maier, SM, Razon, E. Impacts of an extreme cyclone event on landscape-scale savanna fire, productivity and greenhouse gas emissions. Environmental Research Letters. 2013; 8: 045023
    • Jamali, H, Livesley, SJ, Grover, SP, Dawes, TZ, Hutley, LB, Cook, GD, Arndt, SK. The importance of termites to the CH4 balance of a tropical savanna woodland of northern Australia. Ecosystems. 2011; 14: 698-709
    • Jin, Y, Roy, DP. Fire-induced albedo change and its radiative forcing at the surface in northern Australia – art. no. L13401. Geophysical Research Letters. 2005; 32: 13401
    • Jones, DA, Wang, W, Fawcett, R. High-quality spatial climate data-sets for Australia. Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal. 2009; 58: 233-248
    • Kanniah, KD, Beringer, J, Hutley, LB. The comparative role of key environmental factors in determining savanna productivity and carbon fluxes: a review, with special reference to northern Australia. Progress in Physical Geography. 2010a; 34: 459-490
    • Kanniah, KD, Beringer, J, Tapper, NJ, Long, CN. Aerosols and their influence on radiation partitioning and savanna productivity in northern Australia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology. 2010b; 100: 423-438
    • Kanniah, KD, Beringer, J, North, P, Hutley, L. Control of atmospheric particles on diffuse radiation and terrestrial plant productivity: a review. Progress in Physical Geography. 2012; 36: 209-237
    • Kanniah, KD, Beringer, J, Hutley, LB. Response of savanna gross primary productivity to interannual variability in rainfall: results of a remote sensing based light use efficiency model. Progress in Physical Geography. 2013a; 37: 642-663
    • Kanniah, KD, Beringer, J, Hutley, L. Exploring the link between clouds, radiation, and canopy productivity of tropical savannas. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2013b; 182–183: 304-313
    • Knowles, J. The Influence of Forest-Fire Induced Albedo Differences on the Generation of Mesoscale Circulations. 1993
    • Kuhlbusch, TAJ, Andreae, MO, Cachier, H, Goldammer, JG, Lacaux, J-P, Shea, R, Crutzen, PJ. Black carbon formation by savanna fires: measurements and implications for the global carbon cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research. 1996; 101: 23651
    • Le Quéré, C, Andres, RJ, Boden, T. The global carbon budget 1959–2011. Earth System Science Data Discussions. 2012; 5: 1107-1157
    • Lehmann, J, Skjemstad, J, Sohi, S. Australian climate-carbon cycle feedback reduced by soil black carbon. Nature Geoscience. 2008; 1: 832-835
    • Leuning, R, Cleugh, HA, Zegelin, SJ, Hughes, D. Carbon and water fluxes over a temperate Eucalyptus forest and a tropical wet/dry savanna in Australia: measurements and comparison with MODIS remote sensing estimates. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2005; 129: 151-173
    • Levine, JS, Winstead, EL, Parsons, DAB. Biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from savannas in South Africa: the impact of wetting and burning. Journal of Geophysical Research. 1996; 101: 23689
    • Liedloff, A, Cook, GD, Hill, MJ, Hanan, NP. Interaction of fire and rainfall variability on tree structure and carbon fluxes in savannas: application of the flames model. Ecosystem Function in Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales. 2011: 293-308
    • Livesley, SJ, Grover, SPP, Hutley, LB. Seasonal variation and fire effects on CH4, N2O and CO2 exchange in savanna soils of northern Australia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2011; 151: 1440-1452
    • Lynch, AH, Wu, WL. Impacts of fire and warming on ecosystem uptake in the boreal forest. Journal of Climate. 2000; 13: 2334-2338
    • Lynch, AH, Abramson, D, Görgen, K, Beringer, J, Uotila, P. Influence of savanna fire on Australian monsoon season precipitation and circulation as simulated using a distributed computing environment. Geophysical Research Letters. 2007; 34: L20801
    • Lyons, TJ, Schwerdtfeger, P, Hacker, JM, Foster, IJ, Smith, RCG, Xinmei, H. Land-atmosphere interaction in a semiarid region: the Bunny fence experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 1993; 74: 1327-1334
    • Mahmood, R, Pielke, RA, Hubbard, KG. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate. International Journal of Climatology. 2014; 34: 929-953
    • Maier, SW, Russell-Smith, J, Bradstock, RA, Gill, AM, Williams, RJ. Measuring and monitoring of contemporary fire regimes in Australia using satellite remote sensing. Flammable Australia: Fire Regimes, Biodiversity and Ecosystems in a Changing World. 2012: 79-96
    • Mcalpine, CA, Syktus, J, Ryan, JG. A continent under stress: interactions, feedbacks and risks associated with impact of modified land cover on Australia's climate. Global Change Biology. 2009; 15: 2206-2223
    • McGregor, JL, Dix, MR, Hodnett, PE. The CSIRO conformal-cubic atmospheric GCM. IUTAM Symposium on Advances in Mathematical Modelling of Atmosphere and Ocean Dynamics Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications. 2001: 197-202
    • Midgley, JJ, Lawes, MJ, Chamaillé-Jammes, S. TURNER REVIEW No. 19. Savanna woody plant dynamics: the role of fire and herbivory, separately and synergistically. Australian Journal of Botany. 2010; 58: 1
    • Mitchell, RM, Forgan, BW, Campbell, SK, Qin, Y. The climatology of Australian tropical aerosol: evidence for regional correlation. Geophysical Research Letters. 2013; 40: 2384-2389
    • Murphy, BP, Bowman, DMJS. What controls the distribution of tropical forest and savanna?. Ecology letters. 2012; 15: 748-758
    • Murphy, BP, Russell-Smith, J, Prior, LD. Frequent fires reduce tree growth in northern Australian savannas: implications for tree demography and carbon sequestration. Global Change Biology. 2010; 16: 331-343
    • Notaro, M, Wyrwoll, K-H, Chen, G. Did aboriginal vegetation burning impact on the Australian summer monsoon?. Geophysical Research Letters. 2011; 38: L11704
    • Pielke, RA, Pitman, A, Niyogi, D. Land use/land cover changes and climate: modeling analysis and observational evidence. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 2011; 2: 828-850
    • Pinto, AdeS. Soil emissions of N2O, NO, and CO2 in Brazilian savannas: effects of vegetation type, seasonality, and prescribed fires. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2002; 107: 8089
    • Poth, M, Anderson, IC, Miranda, HS, Miranda, AC, Riggan, PJ. The magnitude and persistence of soil NO, N2O, CH4, and CO2 fluxes from burned tropical savanna in Brazil. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 1995; 9: 503-513
    • Potter, CS, Davidson, EA, Verchot, LV. Estimation of global biogeochemical controls and seasonality in soil methane consumption. Chemosphere. 1996; 32: 2219-2246
    • Prior, LD, Murphy, BP, Russell-Smith, J. Environmental and demographic correlates of tree recruitment and mortality in north Australian savannas. Forest Ecology and Management. 2009; 257: 66-74
    • Prior, LD, Williams, RJ, Bowman, DMJS. Experimental evidence that fire causes a tree recruitment bottleneck in an Australian tropical savanna. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 2010; 26: 595-603
    • Ramanathan, V, Carmichael, G. Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon. Nature Geoscience. 2008; 1: 221-227
    • Ramankutty, N, Foley, JA. Estimating historical changes in global land cover: croplands from 1700 to 1992. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 1999; 13: 997-1027
    • Randerson, AJT, Chapin, FS, Harden, JW, Neff, JC, Harmon, ME, Randerson, JT. Net ecosystem production: a comprehensive measure of net carbon accumulation by ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 2002; 12: 937-947
    • Richards, AE, Dathe, J, Cook, GD. Fire interacts with season to influence soil respiration in tropical savannas. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2012; 53: 90-98
    • Roeckner, E. World Data Center 714 for Climate. CERA-DB. 2013
    • Russell-Smith, J, Yates, C, Edwards, A. Contemporary fire regimes of northern Australia, 1997-2001: change since Aboriginal occupancy, challenges for sustainable management. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2003; 12: 283-297
    • Russell-Smith, J, Yates, CP, Whitehead, PJ. Bushfires “down under”: patterns and implications of contemporary Australian landscape burning. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2007; 16: 361
    • Russell-Smith, J, Murphy, BP, Meyer, CP. Improving estimates of savanna burning emissions for greenhouse accounting in northern Australia: limitations, challenges, applications. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2009; 18: 1-18
    • Russell-Smith, J, Cook, GD, Cooke, PM, Edwards, AC, Lendrum, M, Meyer, C(Mick), Whitehead, PJ. Managing fire regimes in north Australian savannas: applying Aboriginal approaches to contemporary global problems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2013; 11: e55-e63
    • Russell-Smith, J, Yates, CP, Evans, J, Meyer, CP, Murphy, BP, Edwards, AC, Meyer, CP, Russell-Smith, J. Application of a “lower rainfall” savanna burning emissions abatement methodology. Carbon Accounting and Management in Fire-Prone Australian Savannas. 2014
    • Sankaran, M, Ratnam, J, Hanan, NP. Tree-grass coexistence in savannas revisited – insights from an examination of assumptions and mechanisms invoked in existing models. Ecology Letters. 2004; 7: 480-490
    • Sankaran, M, Hanan, NP, Scholes, RJ. Determinants of woody cover in African savannas. Nature. 2005; 438: 846-849
    • Scheiter, S, Higgins, SI. Impacts of climate change on the vegetation of Africa: an adaptive dynamic vegetation modelling approach. Global Change Biology. 2009; 15: 2224-2246
    • Scheiter, S, Higgins, SI, Beringer, J, Hutley, LB. Climate change and long-term fire management impacts on Australian savanna. New Phytologist. 2014
    • Schultz, MG, Heil, A, Hoelzemann, JJ. Global wildland fire emissions from 1960 to 2000. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2008; 22: GB2002
    • Schulze, ED, Luyssaert, S, Ciais, P. Importance of methane and nitrous oxide for Europe's terrestrial greenhouse-gas balance. Nature Geoscience. 2009; 2: 842-850
    • Scott, RL, Serrano-Ortiz, P, Domingo, F, Hamerlynck, EP, Kowalski, AS. Commonalities of carbon dioxide exchange in semiarid regions with monsoon and Mediterranean climates. Journal of Arid Environments. 2012a; 84: 71-79
    • Scott, K, Setterfield, SA, Douglas, MM, Parr, CL, Schatz, J, Andersen, AN. Does long-term fire exclusion in an Australian tropical savanna result in a biome shift? A test using the reintroduction of fire. Austral Ecology. 2012b; 37: 693-711
    • Seneviratne, SI, Corti, T, Davin, EL. Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: a review. Earth-Science Reviews. 2010; 99: 125-161
    • Smith, I. An assessment of recent trends in Australian rainfall. Australian Meteorological Magazine 2. 2004; 53: 167-173
    • Smith, KA, Ball, T, Conen, F, Dobbie, KE, Massheder, J, Rey, A. Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes. European Journal of Soil Science. 2003; 54: 779-791
    • Stiehl-Braun, PA, Hartmann, AA, Kandeler, E, Buchmann, N, Niklaus, PA. Interactive effects of drought and N fertilization on the spatial distribution of methane assimilation in grassland soils. Global Change Biology. 2011; 17: 2629-2639
    • Tosca, MG, Randerson, JT, Zender, CS, Flanner, MG, Rasch, PJ. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2010; 10: 3515-3528
    • Tosca, MG, Randerson, JT, Zender, CS. Global impact of smoke aerosols from landscape fires on climate and the Hadley circulation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2013; 13: 5227-5241
    • Townsend, SA, Douglas, MM. The effect of three fire regimes on stream water quality, water yield and export coefficients in a tropical savanna (northern Australia). Journal of Hydrology. 2000; 229: 118-137
    • Townsend, SA, Douglas, MM. The effect of a wildfire on stream water quality and catchment water yield in a tropical savanna excluded from fire for 10 years (Kakadu National Park, North Australia). Water Research. 2004; 38: 3051-3058
    • Tummon, F, Solmon, F, Liousse, C, Tadross, M. Simulation of the direct and semidirect aerosol effects on the southern Africa regional climate during the biomass burning season. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2010; 115: D19206
    • Van Der Werf, GR, Randerson, JT, Giglio, L. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2010; 10: 11707-11735
    • Von Fischer, JC, Butters, G, Duchateau, PC, Thelwell, RJ, Siller, R. In situ measures of methanotroph activity in upland soils: a reaction-diffusion model and field observation of water stress. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2009; 114: G01015
    • Wang, YP, Law, RM, Pak, B. A global model of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles for the terrestrial biosphere. Biogeosciences. 2010; 7: 2261-2282
    • Wang, YP, Kowalczyk, E, Leuning, R. Diagnosing errors in a land surface model (CABLE) in the time and frequency domains. Journal of Geophysical Research. 2011; 116: G01034
    • Ward, DS, Kloster, S, Mahowald, NM, Rogers, BM, Randerson, JT, Hess, PG. The changing radiative forcing of fires: global model estimates for past, present and future. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 2012; 12: 10857-10886
    • Wendt, CK, Beringer, J, Tapper, NJ, Hutley, LB. Local boundary-layer development over burnt and unburnt tropical savanna: an observational study. Boundary-Layer Meteorology. 2007; 124: 291-304
    • Williams, RJ, Douglas, M. Windthrow in a Tropical savanna in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 1995; 11: 547-558
    • Williams, RJ, Duff, GA, Bowman, DMJS, Cook, GD. Variation in the composition and structure of tropical savannas as a function of rainfall and soil texture along a large-scale climatic gradient in the Northern Territory, Australia. Journal of Biogeography. 1996; 23: 747-756
    • Williams, R, Myers, B, Muller, W, Duff, G, Eamus, D. Leaf phenology of woody species in a north Australian tropical savanna. Ecology. 1997; 78: 2542-2558
    • Williams, RJ, Gill, AM, Moore, PHR. Seasonal changes in fire behaviour in a tropical Savanna in Northern Australia. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 1998; 8: 227-239
    • Williams, RJ, Cook, GD, Gill, AM, Moore, PHR. Fire regime, fire intensity and tree survival in a tropical savanna in northern Australia. Austral Ecology. 1999; 24: 50-59
    • Williams, RJ, Hutley, LB, Cook, GD, Russell-Smith, J, Edwards, A, Chen, X. Assessing the carbon sequestration potential of mesic savannas in Northern Territory, Australia: approaches, uncertainties and potential impacts of fire. Functional Plant Biology. 2004; 31: 415-422
    • Witt, GB, Harrington, RA, Page, MJ. Is “vegetation thickening” occurring in Queensland's mulga lands? A 50-year aerial photographic analysis. Australian Journal of Botany. 2009; 57: 572
    • Yates, CP, Edwards, AC, Russell-Smith, J. Big fires and their ecological impacts in Australian savannas: size and frequency matters. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 2008; 17: 768-781
    • Zepp, RG, Miller, WL, Burke, RA, Parsons, DAB, Scholes, MC. Effects of moisture and burning on soil-atmosphere exchange of trace carbon gases in a southern African savanna. Journal of Geophysical Research. 1996; 101: 23699
  • Inferred research data

    The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    Title Trust
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Funded by projects

  • ARC | Impacts of deforestation an...
  • ARC | Patterns and processes of c...
  • ARC | eScience and Climate: Using...
  • ARC | Fire Scar Impacts on Surfac...
  • ARC | Discovery Projects - Grant ...
  • ARC | Integrative assessment of d...
  • ARC | Complexity in climate impac...

Cite this article