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Chausson , Fabienne (2001)
Publisher: HAL CCSD
Languages: French
Types: Doctoral thesis
Subjects: Eau profonde, Comparative study, Etude comparative, Hypercapnie, Ecophysiologie, Deep sea, Hydrothermal Vents, Hemolymph, Hypercapnia, Adaptation, Respiration, Hemocyanine, Ecophysiology, Rimicaris exoculata, Cyanagraea praedator, Hemocyanin, [ SDV.EE.ECO ] Life Sciences [q-bio]/Ecology, environment/Ecosystems, Source hydrothermale, Decapoda, Hemolymphe
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are characterized by environmental conditions, which are variable in space and time. Hydrothermal decapod crustaceans from the Pacific and the Atlantic ridges; although showing a differential distribution on the chimneys, are exposed to relatively similar physico-chemical parameters. They are submitted to large pH variations, to high H2S and CO2 contents and low O2 content. Species from the Pacific are exposed to more pronounced conditions than Atlantic species. Branchial anatomy of hydrothermal vent crabs is broadly similar to that of other coastal and bathyal crab species are particular structures, which could be sensorial receptors, are observed aligned along the efferent vessel. These structures could play a part in the perception by animal of its chemical environment. Ionic composition of hemolymph of hydrothermal vent crustaceans is not very different from those of other coastal and bathyal species, except for copper bioaccumulation, high lactate and proteins contents. Functional hemocyanin (Hc) do not represent the majority of total proteins, may be due to the presence of high apoHc content which are involved in metal detoxification, in particular copper. The Hc quaternary structure seems to be essentially correlated with the taxonomy of the studied species, and properties not particular could be linked to the hydrothermal environment. These Hc possess high oxygen affinities, prononced Bohr effect, a weak or no lactate effect and a small, and even reverse, temperature effect. An unknown factor, which decreases Hc-O2 affinity, was found in the native hemolymph from Cyanagraea praedator. Buffer capacity from the hemolymph of Pacific decapods, which live in a more hypercapnic environment, seems to be superior to those of Atlantic species. The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata exhibits important adaptations with regard to hypercapnia, with full and rapide compensation compared to those observed on coastal species.; Les sources hydrothermales sont caractérisées par des conditions environnementales spatio-temporelles hyper-variables. Les crustacés décapodes hydrothermaux des dorsales Pacifique et Atlantique, bien que présentant une répartition différentielle sur les cheminées, sont soumis à des paramètres physico-chimiques relativement similaires. Ils rencontrent des variations de pH importants, de fortes concentrations en H2S et en CO2 et de faibles teneurs en O2. Les espèces du Pacifique rencontrent des conditions plus marquées que les espèces de l'Atlantique. Les branchies des brachyoures hydrothermaux apparaissent similaires à celles des crustacés côtiers. Des structures ressemblant à des chémorécepteurs ont été observées sur le vaisseur efférent des branchies. Ces structures pourraient intervenir dans la perception par l'animal de son environnement chimique. La composition ionique de l'hémolymphe de ces crustacés est peu différente de celle des crustacés littoraux, à l'exception de fortes teneurs en lactate, en protéines et en cuivre. Les hémocyanines (Hc) fonctionnelles ne représentent pas la majorité des protéines totales, ce qui pourrait être dû à la présence de forte concentration en apoHc qui jouerait un rôle dans la détoxification des métaux. La structure quaternaire des Hc de crustacés hydrothermaux semble essentiellement corrélée avec la position taxonomique des espèces, sans présenter de particularités majeures liées à l'environnement hydrothermal. Ces Hc présentent de fortes affinités pour l'O2, un effet Bohr marqué, un effet lactate faible à nul et un effet température faible, voire inversé. Un facteur diminuant l'affinité Hc-O2 a été mis en évidence chez Cyanagraea praedator. Le pouvoir tampon de l'hémolymphe des crustacés du Pacifique, vivant dans un milieu plus hypercapnique, semble supérieur à celui des espèces de l'Atlantique. La crevette Rimicaris exoculata présente face à une hypercapnie une réponse rapide et complète comparée à celle des espèces littorales.
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    • Figure II-14 : Photo III-10 : Figure VI-2 : Figure VII-2 :
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