Remember Me
Or use your Academic/Social account:


Or use your Academic/Social account:


You have just completed your registration at OpenAire.

Before you can login to the site, you will need to activate your account. An e-mail will be sent to you with the proper instructions.


Please note that this site is currently undergoing Beta testing.
Any new content you create is not guaranteed to be present to the final version of the site upon release.

Thank you for your patience,
OpenAire Dev Team.

Close This Message


Verify Password:
Verify E-mail:
*All Fields Are Required.
Please Verify You Are Human:
fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Kargi, Atil Y.; Iacobellis, Gianluca (2014)
Publisher: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Journal: International Journal of Endocrinology
Languages: English
Types: Review
Subjects: Review Article, RC648-665, Diseases of the endocrine glands. Clinical endocrinology, Article Subject
Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and adipose tissues have important roles in normal physiology and are altered in many disease states. Obesity is associated with changes in adrenal function, including increase in adrenal medullary catecholamine output, alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevations in circulating aldosterone together with changes in adipose tissue glucocorticoid metabolism, and enhanced adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor activity. It is unknown whether these changes in adrenal endocrine function are in part responsible for the pathogenesis of obesity and related comorbidities or represent an adaptive response. In turn, adipose tissue hormones or “adipokines” have direct effects on the adrenal glands and interact with adrenal hormones at several levels. Here we review the emerging evidence supporting the existence of “cross talk” between the adrenal gland and adipose tissue, focusing on the relevance and roles of their respective hormones in health and disease states including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and primary disorders of the adrenals.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • Addison, T. On the constitutional and local effects of disease of the suprarenal capsule. A Collection of the Published Writings of the Late Thomas Addison MD . 1868
    • Oliver, G, Schäfer, EA. On the physiological action of extract of the suprarenal capsules. The Journal of Physiology . 1895; 18 (3): 230-276
    • Armani, A, Mammi, C, Marzolla, V. Cellular models for understanding adipogenesis, adipose dysfunction, and obesity. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry . 2010; 110 (3): 564-572
    • Berg, AH, Scherer, PE. Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation Research . 2005; 96 (9): 939-949
    • Kershaw, EE, Flier, JS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2004; 89 (6): 2548-2556
    • Lee, M, Wu, Y, Fried, SK. Adipose tissue heterogeneity: implication of depot differences in adipose tissue for obesity complications. Molecular Aspects of Medicine . 2013; 34 (1): 1-11
    • Trujillo, ME, Scherer, PE. Adipose tissue-derived factors: impact on health and disease. Endocrine Reviews . 2006; 27 (7): 762-778
    • Han, CY, Kargi, AY, Omer, M. Differential effect of saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids on the generation of monocyte adhesion and chemotactic factors by adipocytes: dissociation of adipocyte hypertrophy from inflammation. Diabetes . 2010; 59 (2): 386-396
    • Ronconi, V, Turchi, F, Bujalska, IJ, Giacchetti, G, Boscaro, M. Adipose cell-adrenal interactions: current knowledge and future perspectives. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2008; 19 (3): 100-103
    • Paschke, L, Zemleduch, T, Rucinski, M, Ziolkowska, A, Szyszka, M, Malendowicz, LK. Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor system in the rat adrenal gland: ontogenetic and physiologic regulation, and its involvement in regulating adrenocortical growth and steroidogenesis. Peptides . 2010; 31 (9): 1715-1724
    • Bornstein, SR, Uhlmann, K, Haidan, A, Ehrhart-Bornstein, M, Scherbaum, WA. Evidence for a novel peripheral action of leptin as a metabolic signal to the adrenal gland: leptin inhibits cortisol release directly. Diabetes . 1997; 46 (7): 1235-1238
    • Ehrhart-Bornstein, M, Lamounier-Zepter, V, Schraven, A. Human adipocytes secrete mineralocorticoid-releasing factors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America . 2003; 100 (2): 14211-14216
    • Funder, JW. Mineralocorticoid receptors: distribution and activation. Heart Failure Reviews . 2005; 10 (1): 15-22
    • Zennaro, M, Caprio, M, Fève, B. Mineralocorticoid receptors in the metabolic syndrome. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2009; 20 (9): 444-451
    • Hirata, A, Maeda, N, Hiuge, A. Blockade of mineralocorticoid receptor reverses adipocyte dysfunction and insulin resistance in obese mice. Cardiovascular Research . 2009; 84 (1): 164-172
    • Funder, JW, Pearce, PT, Smith, R, Smith, AI. Mineralocorticoid action: target tissue specificity is enzyme, not receptor, mediated. Science . 1988; 242 (4878): 583-585
    • Feraco, A, Armani, A, Mammi, C, Fabbri, A, Rosano, GMC, Caprio, M. Role of mineralocorticoid receptor and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in adipocyte dysfunction and obesity. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology . 2013; 137: 99-106
    • Goodfriend, TL, Ball, DL, Egan, BM, Campbell, WB, Nithipatikom, K. Epoxy-keto derivative of linoleic acid stimulates aldosterone secretion. Hypertension . 2004; 43 (2): 358-363
    • Briones, AM, Cat, AND, Callera, GE. Adipocytes produce aldosterone through calcineurin-dependent signaling pathways: implications in diabetes mellitus-associated obesity and vascular dysfunction. Hypertension . 2012; 59 (5): 1069-1078
    • Guo, C, Ricchiuti, V, Lian, BQ. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade reverses obesity-related changes in expression of adiponectin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and proinflammatory adipokines. Circulation . 2008; 117 (17): 2253-2261
    • Gerstein, HC, Yusuf, S, Mann, JFE. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. The Lancet . 2000; 355 (9200): 253-259
    • Pitt, B, Zannad, F, Remme, WJ. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. The New England Journal of Medicine . 1999; 341 (10): 709-717
    • Pitt, B, Remme, W, Zannad, F. Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. The New England Journal of Medicine . 2003; 348 (14): 1309-1321
    • Devenport, LD, Goodwin, KG, Hopkins, PM. Continuous infusion of aldosterone: correlates of body weight gain. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior . 1985; 22 (5): 707-709
    • Conn, JW, Knopf, RF, Nesbit, RM. Clinical characteristics of primary aldosteronism from an analysis of 145 cases. The American Journal of Surgery . 1964; 107 (1): 159-172
    • Iacobellis, G, Petramala, L, Cotesta, D. Adipokines and cardiometabolic profile in primary hyperaldosteronism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2010; 95 (5): 2391-2398
    • Peckett, AJ, Wright, DC, Riddell, MC. The effects of glucocorticoids on adipose tissue lipid metabolism. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental . 2011; 60 (11): 1500-1510
    • Lee, M, Pramyothin, P, Karastergiou, K, Fried, SK. Deconstructing the roles of glucocorticoids in adipose tissue biology and the development of central obesity. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Molecular Basis of Disease . 2014; 1842 (3): 473-481
    • Tomlinson, JJ, Boudreau, A, Wu, D, Atlas, E, Haché, RJG. Modulation of early human preadipocyte differentiation by glucocorticoids. Endocrinology . 2006; 147 (11): 5284-5293
    • Strack, AM, Bradbury, MJ, Dallman, MF. Corticosterone decreases nonshivering thermogenesis and increases lipid storage in brown adipose tissue. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology . 1995; 268 (1, part 2): R183-R191
    • Bujalska, IJ, Kumar, S, Stewart, PM. Does central obesity reflect “Cushing’s disease of the omentum”?. The Lancet . 1997; 349 (9060): 1210-1213
    • Caprio, M, Fève, B, Claës, A, Viengchareun, S, Lombès, M, Zennaro, M. Pivotal role of the mineralocorticoid receptor in corticosteroid-induced adipogenesis. FASEB Journal . 2007; 21 (9): 2185-2194
    • Morton, N, Seckl, J. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and obesity. Frontiers of Hormone Research . 2007; 36: 146-164
    • Purnell, JQ, Kahn, SE, Samuels, MH, Brandon, D, Loriaux, DL, Brunzell, JD. Enhanced cortisol production rates, free cortisol, and 11β-HSD-1 expression correlate with visceral fat and insulin resistance in men: effect of weight loss. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2009; 296 (2): E351-E357
    • Masuzaki, H, Yamamoto, H, Kenyon, CJ. Transgenic amplification of glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue causes high blood pressure in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation . 2003; 112 (1): 83-90
    • Wamil, M, Seckl, JR. Inhibition of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 as a promising therapeutic target. Drug Discovery Today . 2007; 12 (13-14): 504-520
    • Pereira, CD, Azevedo, I, Monteiro, R, Martins, MJ. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: relevance of its modulation in the pathophysiology of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism . 2012; 14 (10): 869-881
    • Hollis, G, Huber, R. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibition in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism . 2011; 13 (1): 1-6
    • Rosenstock, J, Banarer, S, Fonseca, VA. The 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor INCB13739 improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy. Diabetes Care . 2010; 33 (7): 1516-1522
    • Lee, M, Gong, D, Burkey, BF, Fried, SK. Pathways regulated by glucocorticoids in omental and subcutaneous human adipose tissues: a microarray study. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2011; 300 (3): E571-E580
    • Lee, M, Fried, SK. Integration of hormonal and nutrient signals that regulate leptin synthesis and secretion. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2009; 296 (6): E1230-E1238
    • Sukumaran, S, DuBois, DC, Jusko, WJ, Almon, RR. Glucocorticoid effects on adiponectin expression. Vitamins and Hormones . 2012; 90: 163-186
    • Pasquali, R, Vicennati, V, Cacciari, M, Pagotto, U. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences . 2006; 1083: 111-128
    • Vicennati, V, Ceroni, L, Gagliardi, L. Response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to small dose arginine-vasopressin and daily urinary free cortisol before and after alprazolam pre-treatment differs in obesity. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation . 2004; 27 (6): 541-547
    • Bertagna, X, Coste, J, Raux-Demay, MC, Letrait, M, Strauch, G. The combined corticotropin-releasing hormone/lysine vasopressin test discloses a corticotroph phenotype. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . 1994; 79 (2): 390-394
    • Pasquali, R, Cantobelli, S, Casimirri, F. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obese women with different patterns of body fat distribution. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . 1993; 77 (2): 341-346
    • Marin, P, Darin, N, Amemiya, T, Andersson, B, Jern, S, Bjorntorp, P. Cortisol secretion in relation to body fat distribution in obese premenopausal women. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental . 1992; 41 (8): 882-886
    • Pasquali, R, Ambrosi, B, Armanini, D. Cortisol and ACTH response to oral dexamethasone in obesity and effects of sex, body fat distribution, and dexamethasone concentrations: a dose-response study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2002; 87 (1): 166-175
    • Orentreich, N, Brind, JL, Rizer, RL, Vogelman, JH. Age changes and sex differences in serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations throughout adulthood. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . 1984; 59 (3): 551-555
    • Feher, T, Bodrogi, L. A comparative study of steroid concentrations in human adipose tissue and the peripheral circulation. Clinica Chimica Acta . 1982; 126 (2): 135-141
    • Trivedi, DP, Khaw, KT. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and mortality in elderly men and women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2001; 86 (9): 4171-4177
    • Rice, SPL, Zhang, L, Grennan-Jones, F. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment in vitro inhibits adipogenesis in human omental but not subcutaneous adipose tissue. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology . 2010; 320 (1-2): 51-57
    • Hernandez-Morante, JJ, Milagro, F, Gabaldon, JA, Martinez, JA, Zamora, S, Garaulet, M. Effect of DHEA-sulfate on adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue from different fat depots in morbidly obese humans. European Journal of Endocrinology . 2006; 155 (4): 593-600
    • Kochan, Z, Karbowska, J. Dehydroepiandrosterone up-regulates resistin gene expression in white adipose tissue. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology . 2004; 218 (1-2): 57-64
    • Tchernof, A, Labrie, F. Dehydroepiandrosterone, obesity and cardiovascular disease risk: a review of human studies. European Journal of Endocrinology . 2004; 151 (1): 1-14
    • Villareal, DT, Holloszy, JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association . 2004; 292 (18): 2243-2248
    • Mayes, JS, Watson, GH. Direct effects of sex steroid hormones on adipose tissues and obesity. Obesity Reviews . 2004; 5 (4): 197-216
    • Ramirez, ME, McMurry, MP, Wiebke, GA. Evidence for sex steroid inhibition of lipoprotein lipase in men: comparison of abdominal and femoral adipose tissue. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental . 1997; 46 (2): 179-185
    • Brann, DW, de Sevilla, L, Zamorano, PL, Mahesh, VB. Regulation of leptin gene expression and secretion by steroid hormones. Steroids . 1999; 64 (9): 659-663
    • Arner, P. Catecholamine-induced lipolysis in obesity. International Journal of Obesity . 1999; 23 (supplement 1): 10-13
    • Jocken, JWE, Blaak, EE. Catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in obesity. Physiology and Behavior . 2008; 94 (2): 219-230
    • Than, A, Ye, F, Xue, R, Ong, JW, Poh, CL, Chen, P. The crosstalks between adipokines and catecholamines. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology . 2011; 332 (1-2): 261-270
    • Dulloo, AG. A sympathetic defense against obesity. Science . 2002; 297 (5582): 780-781
    • Smith, MM, Minson, CT. Obesity and adipokines: effects on sympathetic overactivity. Journal of Physiology . 2012; 590 (8): 1787-1801
    • Simonds, SE, Cowley, MA, Enriori, PJ. Leptin increasing sympathetic nerve outflow in obesity: a cure for obesity or a potential contributor to metabolic syndrome?. Adipocyte . 2012; 1 (3): 177-181
    • Böttner, A, Eisenhofer, G, Torpy, DJ. Preliminary report: lack of leptin suppression in response to hypersecretion of catecholamines in pheochromocytoma patients. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental . 1999; 48 (5): 543-545
    • Kuji, I, Imabayashi, E, Minagawa, A, Matsuda, H, Miyauchi, T. Brown adipose tissue demonstrating intense FDG uptake in a patient with mediastinal pheochromocytoma. Annals of Nuclear Medicine . 2008; 22 (3): 231-235
    • Iyer, RB, Guo, CC, Perrier, N. Adrenal pheochromocytoma with surrounding brown fat stimulation. American Journal of Roentgenology . 2009; 192 (1): 300-301
    • Iacobellis, G, di Gioia, C, Petramala, L. Brown fat expresses adiponectin in humans. International Journal of Endocrinology . 2013; 2013: 6 pages
    • Zeiger, MA, Siegelman, SS, Hamrahian, AH. Medical and surgical evaluation and treatment of adrenal incidentalomas. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2011; 96 (7): 2004-2015
    • Terzolo, M, Pia, A, Alì, A. Adrenal incidentaloma: a new cause of the metabolic syndrome?. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism . 2002; 87 (3): 998-1003
    • Iacobellis, G, Petramala, L, Barbaro, G. Epicardial fat thickness and left ventricular mass in subjects with adrenal incidentaloma. Endocrine . 2013; 44 (2): 532-536
    • Peppa, M, Boutati, E, Koliaki, C. Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in patients with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas: a cause-effect relationship?. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental . 2010; 59 (10): 1435-1441
    • Reincke, M, Faßnacht, M, Väth, S, Mora, P, Allolio, B. Adrenal incidentalomas: a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome?. Endocrine Research . 1996; 22 (4): 757-761
    • Zhang, Y, Proenca, R, Maffei, M, Barone, M, Leopold, L, Friedman, JM. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature . 1994; 372 (6505): 425-432
    • Kruse, M, Bornstein, SR, Uhlmann, K, Paeth, G, Scherbaum, WA. Leptin down-regulates the steroid producing system in the adrenal. Endocrine Research . 1998; 24 (3-4): 587-590
    • Pralong, FP, Roduit, R, Waeber, G. Leptin inhibits directly glucocorticoid secretion by normal human and rat adrenal gland. Endocrinology . 1998; 139 (10): 4264-4268
    • Heiman, ML, Ahima, RS, Craft, LS, Schoner, B, Stephens, TW, Flier, JS. Leptin inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress. Endocrinology . 1997; 138 (9): 3859-3863
    • Lado-Abeal, J, Mrotek, JJ, Stocco, DM, Norman, RL. Effect of leptin on ACTH-stimulated secretion of cortisol in rhesus macaques and on human adrenal carcinoma cells. European Journal of Endocrinology . 1999; 141 (5): 534-538
    • Takekoshi, K, Motooka, M, Isobe, K. Leptin directly stimulates catecholamine secretion and synthesis in cultured porcine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications . 1999; 261 (2): 426-431
    • Rossi, GP, Sticchi, D, Giuliani, L. Adiponectin receptor expression in the human adrenal cortex and aldosterone-producing adenomas. International Journal of Molecular Medicine . 2006; 17 (6): 975-980
    • Li, P, Sun, F, Cao, H. Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications . 2009; 390 (4): 1208-1213
    • Degawa-Yamauchi, M, Moss, KA, Bovenkerk, JE. Regulation of adiponectin expression in human adipocytes: effects of adiposity, glucocorticoids, and tumor necrosis factor α . Obesity Research . 2005; 13 (4): 662-669
    • Iwen, KAH, Senyaman, O, Schwartz, A. Melanocortin crosstalk with adipose functions: ACTH directly induces insulin resistance, promotes a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile and stimulates UCP-1 in adipocytes. Journal of Endocrinology . 2008; 196 (3): 465-472
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.