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Crable, Bryan R.; Plugge, Caroline M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Stams, Alfons J. M. (2011)
Publisher: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Journal: Enzyme Research
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Review Article, QD415-436, Biochemistry, Article Subject, Biology (General), QH301-705.5
Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

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