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Snow, RW; Guerra, CA; Mutheu, JJ; Hay, SI (2008)
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Journal: PLoS medicine
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Global Health, R, Research Article, Medicine in Developing Countries, Public Health and Epidemiology, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Malaria, Travel Medicine

Classified by OpenAIRE into

mesheuropmc: parasitic diseases
Editors' Summary Background. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world and one of the greatest global public health problems. The Plasmodium falciparum parasite causes approximately 500 million cases each year and over one million deaths. More than 40% of the world's population is at risk of malaria. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), established by the United Nations in 2000, include a target in Goal 6: “to have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.” Following the launch of the MDG and international initiatives like Roll Back Malaria, there has been an upsurge in support for malaria control. This effort has included the formation of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) and considerable funding from the US President's Malaria Initiative, the World Bank, the UK Department for International Development, USAID, and nongovernmental agencies and foundations like the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. But it is not yet clear how equitable or effective the financial commitments to malaria control have been. Why Was This Study Done? As part of the activities of the Malaria Atlas Project, the researchers had previously generated a global map of the limits of P. falciparum transmission. This map detailed areas where risk is moderate or high (stable transmission areas where malaria is endemic) and areas where the risk of transmission is low (unstable transmission areas where sporadic outbreaks of malaria may occur). Because the level of funding to control malaria should be proportionate to the size of the populations at risk, the researchers in this study appraised whether the areas of greatest need were receiving financial resources in proportion to this risk. That is, whether there is equity in how malaria funding is allocated. What Did the Researchers Do and Find? To assess the international financing of malaria control, the researchers conducted a audit of financial commitments to malaria control of the GFATM, national governments, and other donors for the period 2002 to 2007. To assess need, they estimated the population at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria transmission in 2007, building on their previous malaria map. Financial commitments were identified via online and literature searches, including the GFATM Web site, the World Malaria Report produced by WHO and UNICEF, and various other sources of financial information. Together these data allowed the authors to generate an estimate of the annual malaria funding allocation per capita population at risk of P. falciparum. Of the 87 malaria-endemic countries, 76 received malaria funding commitments by the end of 2007. Overall, annual funding amounted to US$1 billion dollars, or less than US$1 per person at risk. Forty percent came from the GFATM, and the remaining from a mix of national government and external donors. The authors found great regional variation in the levels of funding. For example, looking at just the countries approved for GFATM funding, Myanmar was awarded an average annual per capita-at-risk amount of US$0.01 while Suriname was awarded US$147. With all financial commitments combined, ten countries had per capita annual support of more than US$4 per person, but 34 countries had less than US$1, including 16 where annual malaria support was less than US$0.5 per capita. These 16 countries represent 50% of the global population at risk and include seven of the poorest countries in Africa and two of the most densely populated stable endemic countries in the world (India and Indonesia). What Do These Findings Mean? The researchers find that the distribution of funds across the regions affected by malaria to be generally appropriate, with the Africa region and low-population-at-risk areas such as the Americas, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe receiving proportionate annual malaria support. But they also identify large shortfalls, such as in the South East Asia and Western Pacific regions, which represents 47% of the global population at risk but received only 17% of GFATM and 24% of non-GFATM support. National government spending also falls short: for example, in Nigeria, where more than 100 million people are at risk of stable P. falciparum transmission, less than US$1 is invested per person per year. These findings illustrate how important it is to examine financial commitments against actual needs. Given the gaps between funding support and level of stable P. falciparum risk, the authors conclude that the goal to reduce the global burden of malaria by 2015 very likely will not be met with current commitments. They estimate that there remains a 50%–450% shortfall in funding needed to scale up malaria control worldwide. Future research should assess the impact of these funding commitments and what additional resources will be needed if goals of malaria elimination are added to malaria control targets. Additional Information. Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050142. This study is discussed further in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Anthony Kiszewski The authors of this article have also published a global map of malaria risk; see Guerra, et al. (2008) PLoS Med 5(2) e38 Information is available from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria More information is available on global mapping of malaria risk from the Malaria Atlas Project

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