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Enric Rovira; Anna Cuadras; Pere Gaig; Vanessa Gázquez; Gaspar Dalmau; Susana Gómez-Ollés; Mª Jesús Cruz (2010)
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal: Gaceta Sanitaria
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Epidemias, Soja, Epidemiología del asma, Prevención y control del asma, Disease outbreaks, Soybeans, Asthma epidemiology, Asthma prevention and control, Public aspects of medicine, RA1-1270
Objetivos: Entre 2007 y 2008 se descargaron 215.000 toneladas de cascarilla de soja en el puerto de Tarragona. En la cascarilla se encuentra la proteína causante de las epidemias de asma bronquial. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron estudiar las características de las descargas, la dispersión del alergeno y el riesgo para la población. Métodos: Se recogió información sobre el proceso de descarga, transporte y almacenaje, la meteorología y los casos de asma atendidos en urgencias hospitalarias. Se midió la concentración de alergeno en los filtros de PM10 de las estaciones de vigilancia de la contaminación atmosférica. En los pacientes sensibilizados se realizó un estudio clínico consistente en pruebas cutáneas, IgE sérica total y específica para soja, e inmunoblotting. Resultados: Se encontraron concentraciones moderadas de alergeno a un kilómetro del punto de descarga (3 días por encima de 300U/m³, máximo 441U/m³). El perfil proteico de los extractos de cascarilla es similar al de las muestras de las epidemias de Barcelona. El 92% de los pacientes estudiados son sensibles a los extractos de cascarilla. No hubo ninguna epidemia de asma durante los días de descarga. Además de las proteínas de bajo peso molecular identificadas en estudios anteriores (6 y 14-17kDa), se han encontrado proteínas de mayor peso molecular (14-49kDa). Conclusiones: Existe dispersión del alergeno a corta distancia del lugar de la descarga y riesgo para la población que continúa sensibilizada. Han de adoptarse medidas durante las descargas para reducir al mínimo la emisión de partículas.
Objectives: From 2007 to 2008, 215,000 tons of soybean hull were unloaded in the Port of Tarragona. Soybean hull was identified as the etiologic agent causing bronchial asthma outbreaks. The aim of the present study was to identify the characteristics of soybean unloading, soybean allergen dispersion, and the population risk. Methods: Data on soybean hull unloading, carriage and storage, meteorological conditions and the number of emergency room admissions for asthma were recorded. Allergen concentrations were obtained by sampling PM10 filters retaining particles of less than 10 microns for 24 hours in the atmospheric contamination surveillance stations. Sensitized patients underwent clinical examination consisting of skin prick test, total and specific IgE and immunoblotting to soybean extracts. Results: Allergen emissions were moderate at one kilometer from the unloading source (above 300U/m³ on 3 days, maximum 441U/m³). The protein pattern of hull soybean extracts was similar to that found in asthma epidemics in Barcelona. Ninety-two percent of the patients were sensitized to soybean hull extracts. No asthma epidemic was detected during unloading days. In addition to the low molecular weight soybean proteins identified in previous studies (6 and 14-17kDa), high molecular weight proteins were found (14-49kDa). Conclusions: There is allergen dispersion at a short distance from the unloading source, posing a risk to sensitized patients. Technical measures are required during soybean hull operations to reduce particle emissions.
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