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Fernández Santillán, José (2009)
Publisher: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Administración
Languages: Spanish
Types: Unknown
Subjects: social capital, J, civil society, democracia, democracy, Political science, sociedad civil, Social sciences (General), H1-99, patrimonialismo, comunitarismo, capital social, communitarianism and patronage
Este documento aborda el tema de la democracia desde una perspectiva opuesta al llamado neoinstitucionalismo; es decir, se orienta a analizar los procesos de democratización desde la base de la sociedad civil y, en especial, desde lo que se conoce como el capital social. Desde mediados de la década de 1980, el tema de la democracia desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil fue cobrando cada vez mayor relevancia. Esta tendencia se vio reforzada por la cada del Muro de Berlín el 9 de noviembre de 1989, cuando se dijo que el factor fundamental de la liberación de los países del Este europeo fue, precisamente, la sociedad civil. Lo que aquí se hace es abordar el tema desde una perspectiva teórica que toca lo mismo a los clásicos del pensamiento político como Hegel, Tocqueville, Marx y Gramsci, que a autores contemporáneos como Jean Cohen, Andrew Arato, Marc Warren y Axel Honneth. Respecto al tema del capital social se aborda particularmente el pensamiento de Robert D. Putnam, quien sostiene que la base de la democracia y el desarrollo económico es el fortalecimiento de las redes de confianza en la sociedad civil. Este ensayo es crítico tanto del mencionado neoinstitucionalismo como del comunitarismo y del patrimonialismo. This document gives an insight to democracy from an opposite perspective of what is called neoinstitutionalism, which means it is oriented to analyze the process of democratization from the base of civil society, especially from what is known as social capital. Since the mid 80's, the theme of democracy from the perspective of civil society started to have more and more relevance. This tendency was reinforced by the fall of Berlin's wall in 1989 when it was said that the key factor for the liberation of countries in Eastern Europe, was precisely civil society. What is done here is an approach to democracy from a theoretical perspective that includes some classics like Hegel, Toqueville, Marx, and Gramsci and some contemporary authors like Jean Cohen, Andrew Arato, Marc Warren, and Axel Honneth. Regarding the subject of social capital we use particularly the ideas of Robert D. Putnam who affirms that the base of democracy and economical development is the fortification of circles of trust in civil society. This essay criticizes the so-called neoinstitutionalism as well as communitarianism and patronage.
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