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E. E. Bockmon; C. A. Frieder; M. O. Navarro; L. A. White-Kershek; A. G. Dickson (2013)
Publisher: Copernicus Publications
Journal: Biogeosciences Discussions
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Geology, QE1-996.5, Science, Q, DOAJ:Earth Sciences, DOAJ:Earth and Environmental Sciences, Biology (General), QH301-705.5, DOAJ:Biology, DOAJ:Biology and Life Sciences, Evolution, QH359-425, Ecology, QH540-549.5, Life, QH501-531
As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO<sub>2</sub> on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations, complicating the anthropogenic impact on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO<sub>2</sub> concentration, O<sub>2</sub> levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel<sup>®</sup> membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO<sub>2</sub> between approximately 500–1400 μatm and O<sub>2</sub> from 80–240 μmol kg<sup>−1</sup>. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10–17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, control results in variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration less than 3.5 μmol kg<sup>−1</sup>. Longer experiments, over a month, have been completed with reasonable but lessened control, still better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg<sup>−1</sup> O<sub>2</sub>. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO<sub>2</sub> world.
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