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MacLeod, C. (1991)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects:
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    • 10. When the color (or picture) is to be named, maximal impact of a congruent or incongruent word will be observed when the two dimensions begin within 100 ms of each other. Facilitation may extend to longer SOAs than interference when the word comes first. Manipulating SOA has virtually no impact on word reading unless a very high proportion of congruent trials biases use of the color to initiate response production.
    • 11. A reverse Stroop effect (i.e., interference with word reading caused by an incompatible, irrelevant ink color) appears to be possible, but this effect is not simply a consequence of the relative speeds of processing each dimension.
    • 12. Degree of practice in processing each of the dimensions of a multidimensional stimulus is very influential in determining the extent of interference from one dimension on another. The greater the practice in processing a dimension, the more capable that dimension seems of influencing the processing of another dimension.
    • 13. Although still significant, interference (but perhaps not facilitation) is reduced when response modality is switched from oral to manual. Stimulus-response compatibility matters; if the normal processing of the irrelevant dimension leads to a response in the mode designated for the relevant dimension, interference is likely to be heightened.
    • 14. When the irrelevant dimension of a set of stimuli includes names that are eligible responses for the relevant dimension, more interference results than when the sets are nonoverlapping. Although variations in response set size might be expected to affect interference, existing results are unclear.
    • 15. There are no sex differences in Stroop interference at any age.
    • 16. Interferencebegins early in the school years, rising to its highest level around Grades 2 to 3 as reading skill develops. With continued development of reading, interference declines through the adult years until approximately age 60, at which point it begins to increase again.
    • 17. The left hemisphere generally shows more interference than the right.
    • 18. Interference between the two languages of a bilingual, although not as great as that within either one of the languages, is very robust: Between language interference typically is about 75% of within-language interference. Furthermore, a dominant language has more potential for interfering than does a nondominant one.
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