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Resende, Caio Cordeiro de (2012)
Languages: Portuguese
Types: Master thesis
O principal objetivo deste trabalho é comparar as recomendações normativas de intervenção do Estado na economia da Escola do Setor Público Tradicional e da Escola Austríaca na presença de falhas de mercado. A fim de evidenciar a diferença entre as duas abordagens, a discussão tem como ponto de partida um dos principais modelos de equilíbrio da economia neoclássica: o modelo de Arrow-Debreu. Na Parte II, analisam-se os principais argumentos que, tradicionalmente, sustentam a crença de que uma intervenção do Estado na economia pode ser benéfica quando existem falhas de mercado (poder de mercado, externalidades, bens públicos e informação assimétrica). Na Parte III, são investigadas as principais características da economia positiva austríaca, que se destaca pelo foco na análise do processo de mercado, ao contrário da tradicional, focada na análise das propriedades dos diferentes estados de equilíbrio. Por fim, na Parte IV, demonstra-se como, a partir de uma definição diferente do objeto central da teoria econômica, a análise das recomendações normativas de intervenção do Estado na economia, bem como a própria definição de “falha de mercado”, ganha nova perspectiva. É com base nessa perspectiva que os austríacos questionam as recomendacões de intervenção do Estado na economia feitas no âmbito da Economia do Setor Público Tradicional. Para isso, a Escola Austríaca assimila argumentos desenvolvidos no âmbito de outras escolas de pensamento, complementando-os com uma linha de crítica original, advinda do foco da análise no processo de mercado e no conhecimento imperfeito dos agentes. _______________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study is to compare the normative recommendations of state intervention in the economy of the Traditional Public Sector Economics and the Austrian School of Economics in the presence of market failures. In order to show the difference between the two approaches, the discussion has as its starting point one of the main equilibrium models of neoclassical economics: the Arrow-Debreu model. In Part II, we analyze the main arguments that traditionally support the belief that state intervention in the economy can be beneficial when there are market failures (market power, externalities, public goods and asymmetric information). In Part III, we discuss the main characteristics of the positive Austrian economics, which stands out by focusing on analysis of the market process, unlike the traditional focus on analyzing the properties of different equilibrium states. Finally, in Part IV, we demonstrate how, from a different definition of the central object of economic theory, the analysis of the normative recommendations of state intervention in the economy, as well as the very definition of "market failure", gain a new perspective. It is based on this perspective that the Austrians question the recommendations of state intervention in the economy made in the Traditional Public Sector Economics. To that end, the Austrian School assimilates arguments developed in other schools of thought, complementing them with a unique line of criticism that came from the focus of analysis in the market process and imperfect knowledge of the agents.
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