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Akaike, Masashi; Che, Wenyi; Marmarosh, Nicole-Lerner; Ohta, Shinsuke; Osawa, Masaki; Ding, Bo; Berk, Bradford C.; Yan, Chen; Abe, Jun-ichi (2004)
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Cell Growth and Development
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors that form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor gene family. Since both flow and PPARγ have atheroprotective effects and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) kinase activity is significantly increased by flow, we investigated whether ERK5 kinase regulates PPARγ activity. We found that activation of ERK5 induced PPARγ1 activation in endothelial cells (ECs). However, we could not detect PPARγ phosphorylation by incubation with activated ERK5 in vitro, in contrast to ERK1/2 and JNK, suggesting a role for ERK5 as a scaffold. Endogenous PPARγ1 was coimmunoprecipitated with endogenous ERK5 in ECs. By mammalian two-hybrid analysis, we found that PPARγ1 associated with ERK5a at the hinge-helix 1 region of PPARγ1. Expressing a hinge-helix 1 region PPARγ1 fragment disrupted the ERK5a-PPARγ1 interaction, suggesting a critical role for hinge-helix 1 region of PPARγ in the ERK5-PPARγ interaction. Flow increased ERK5 and PPARγ1 activation, and the hinge-helix 1 region of the PPARγ1 fragment and dominant negative MEK5β significantly reduced flow-induced PPARγ activation. The dominant negative MEK5β also prevented flow-mediated inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated NF-κB activation and adhesion molecule expression, including vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin, indicating a physiological role for ERK5 and PPARγ activation in flow-mediated antiinflammatory effects. We also found that ERK5 kinase activation was required, likely by inducing a conformational change in the NH2-terminal region of ERK5 that prevented association of ERK5 and PPARγ1. Furthermore, association of ERK5a and PPARγ1 disrupted the interaction of SMRT and PPARγ1, thereby inducing PPARγ activation. These data suggest that ERK5 mediates flow- and ligand-induced PPARγ activation via the interaction of ERK5 with the hinge-helix 1 region of PPARγ.

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