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Lutsiv, Olha; Hulman, Adam; Woolcott, Christy; Beyene, Joseph; Giglia, Lucy; Armson, B. Anthony; Dodds, Linda; Neupane, Binod; McDonald, Sarah D. (2017)
Publisher: BioMed Central
Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Twins, Research Article, Small for gestational age, Pregnancy, Weight gain, Guidelines
Background Weight gain during pregnancy has an important impact on maternal and neonatal health. Unlike the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations for weight gain in singleton pregnancies, those for twin gestations are termed “provisional”, as they are based on limited data. The objectives of this study were to determine the neonatal and maternal outcomes associated with gaining weight below, within and above the IOM provisional guidelines on gestational weight gain in twin pregnancies, and additionally, to explore ranges of gestational weight gain among women who delivered twins at the recommended gestational age and birth weight, and those who did not. Methods A retrospective cohort study of women who gave birth to twins at ≥20 weeks gestation, with a birth weight ≥ 500 g was conducted in Nova Scotia, Canada (2003–2014). Our primary outcome of interest was small for gestational age (<10th percentile). In order to account for gestational age at delivery, weekly rates of 2nd and 3rd trimester weight gain were used to categorize women as gaining below, within, or above guidelines. We performed traditional regression analyses for maternal outcomes, and to account for the correlated nature of the neonatal outcomes in twins, we used generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results A total of 1482 twins and 741 mothers were included, of whom 27%, 43%, and 30% gained below, within, and above guidelines, respectively. The incidence of small for gestational age in these three groups was 30%, 21%, and 20%, respectively, and relative to gaining within guidelines, the adjusted odds ratios were 1.44 (95% CI 1.01–2.06) for gaining below and 0.92 (95% CI 0.62–1.36) for gaining above. The gestational weight gain in women who delivered twins at 37–42 weeks with average birth weight ≥ 2500 g and those who delivered twins outside of the recommend ranges were comparable to each other and the IOM recommendations. Conclusions While gestational weight gain below guidelines for twins was associated with some adverse neonatal outcomes, additional research exploring alternate ranges of gestational weight gain in twin pregnancies is warranted, in order to optimize neonatal and maternal outcomes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12884-017-1530-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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