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Baverel, G; Genoux, C; Forissier, M; Pellet, M (1980)
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Research Article
1. The pathways and the fate of glutamate carbon and nitrogen were investigated in isolated guinea-pig kidney-cortex tubules. 2. At low glutamate concentration (1 mM), the glutamate carbon skeleton was either completely oxidized or converted into glutamine. At high glutamate concentration (5 mM), glucose, lactate and alanine were additional products of glutamate metabolism. 3. At neither concentration of glutamate was there accumulation of ammonia. 4. Nitrogen-balance calculations and the release of 14CO2 from L-[1-14C]glutamate (which gives an estimation of the flux of glutamate carbon skeleton through alpha-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) clearly indicated that, despite the absence of ammonia accumulation, glutamate metabolism was initiated by the action of glutamate dehydrogenase and not by transamination reactions as suggested by Klahr, Schoolwerth & Bourgoignie [(1972) Am. J. Physiol. 222, 813-820] and Preuss [(1972) Am. J. Physiol. 222, 1395-1397]. Additional evidence for this was obtained by the use of (i) amino-oxyacetate, an inhibitor of transaminases, which did not decrease glutamate removal, or (ii) L-methionine DL-sulphoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, which caused an accumulation of ammonia from glutamate. 5. Addition of NH4Cl plus glutamate caused an increase in both glutamate removal and glutamine synthesis, demonstrating that the supply of ammonia via glutamate dehydrogenase is the rate-limiting step in glutamine formation from glutamate. NH4Cl also inhibited the flux of glutamate through glutamate dehydrogenase and the formation of glucose, alanine and lactate. 6. The activities of enzymes possibly involved in the glutamate conversion into pyruvate were measured in guinea-pig renal cortex. 7. Renal arteriovenous-difference measurements revealed that in vivo the guinea-pig kidney adds glutamine and alanine to the circulating blood.
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