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Iddon, J; Pickard, J; Cross, J; Griffiths, P; Czosnyka, M; Sahakian, B (1999)
Publisher: BMJ Group
Languages: English
Types: Article
Subjects: Papers
Identifiers:pmc:PMC1736677
OBJECTIVES—Eleven patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) were selected from an initial cohort of 43 patients. The patients with NPH fell into two distinctive subgroups: preshunt, group 1 (n=5) scored less than 24 on the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and were classified as demented and group 2 (n=6) scored 24 or above on the MMSE and were classified as non-demented.
METHODS—All patients were neuropsychologically assessed on two occasions: preshunt and then again 6 months postshunt. Group 1 completed the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Kendrick object learning test (KOLT). In addition to the MMSE and KOLT, group 2 completed further tasks including verbal fluency and memory and attentional tasks from the CANTAB battery. Nine of the 11patients also underwent postshunt MRI.
RESULTS—Group 1, who, preshunt, performed in the dementing range on both the MMSE and KOLT, showed a significant postoperative recovery, with all patients now scoring within the normal non-demented range. Group 2, although showing no signs of dementia according to the MMSE and KOLT either preshunt or postshunt, did show a specific pattern of impairment on tests sensitive to frontostriatal dysfunction compared with healthy volunteers, and this pattern remained postoperatively. Importantly, this pattern is distinct from that exhibited by patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. Eight of the nine patterns of structural damage corresponded well to cognitive performance.
CONCLUSIONS—These findings are useful for three main reasons: (1) they detail the structural and functional profile of impairment seen in NPH, (2) they demonstrate the heterogeneity found in this population and show how severity of initial cognitive impairment can affect outcome postshunt, and (3) they may inform and provide a means of monitoring the cognitive outcome of new procedures in shunt surgery.



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