OpenAIRE is about to release its new face with lots of new content and services.
During September, you may notice downtime in services, while some functionalities (e.g. user registration, login, validation, claiming) will be temporarily disabled.
We apologize for the inconvenience, please stay tuned!
For further information please contact helpdesk[at]

fbtwitterlinkedinvimeoflicker grey 14rssslideshare1
Huang, Xiaoqiu (2013)
Languages: English
Types: Preprint
Subjects: Quantitative Biology - Other Quantitative Biology
The mechanisms underlying major aspects of the human brain remain a mystery. It is unknown how verbal episodic memory is formed and integrated with sensory episodic memory. There is no consensus on the function and nature of dreaming. Here we present a theory for governing neural activity in the human brain. The theory describes the mechanisms for building memory traces for entities and explains how verbal memory is integrated with sensory memory. We infer that a core function of dreaming is to move charged particles such as calcium ions from the hippocampus to association areas to primary areas. We link a high level of calcium ions concentrations to Alzheimer's disease. We present a more precise definition of consciousness. Our results are a step forward in understanding the function and health of the human brain and provide the public with ways to keep a healthy brain.
  • The results below are discovered through our pilot algorithms. Let us know how we are doing!

    • [1] Berridge MJ, Bootman MD, Roderick HL. 2003. Calcium signalling: Dynamics, homeostasis and remodelling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4: 517-529.
    • [2] Bliss TVP, Collingridge GL. 1993. A synaptic model of memory: Long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361: 31-39.
    • [3] Bliwise DL. 2004. Sleep disorders in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Clin Cornerstone 6: S16-S28.
    • [5] Burianova H, Grady CL. 2007. Common and unique neural activations in autobiographical episodic, and semantic retrieval. J Cogn Neurosci 19: 1520-1534.
    • [6] Bussey TJ, Saksida LM. 2007. Memory, perception, and the ventral visualperirhinal-hippocampal stream: Thinking outside of the boxes. Hippocampus 17: 898-908.
    • [7] Cahn BR, Polich J. 2006. Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychol Bull 132: 180-211.
    • [8] Cowell RA, Bussey TJ, Saksida LM. 2010. Components of recognition memory: Dissociable cognitive processes or just differences in representational complexity? Hippocampus 20: 1245-1262.
    • [9] Edelman GM. 2004. Wider than the sky: The phenomenal gift of consciousness. Yale University Press, New Haven.
    • [10] Eichenbaum H, Cohen NJ. 2001. From conditioning to conscious recollection: Memory systems of the brain. Oxford University Press, New York.
    • [11] Ellenbogen JM, Hulbert JC, Stickgold R, Dinges DF, Thompson-Schill SL. 2006. Interfering with theories of sleep and memory: Sleep, declarative memory, and associative interference. Curr Biol 16: 1290-1294.
    • [12] Freud S. 1900. The interpretation of dreams. Basic Books, New York.
    • [13] Gargus JJ. 2009. Genetic calcium signaling abnormalities in the central nervous system: Seizures, migraine, and autism. Ann NY Acad Sci 1151: 133-156.
    • [14] Goldberg RF, Perfetti CA, Schneider W. 2006. Perceptual knowledge retrieval activates sensory brain regions. J Neurosci 26: 4917-4921.
    • [15] Hauser MD, Chomsky N, Fitch WT. 2002. The faculty of language: What is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science 298: 1569-1579.
    • [16] Hobson JA. 2009. REM sleep and dreaming: Towards a theory of protoconsciousness. Nature Rev Neurosci 10: 803-813.
    • [17] Hobson JA, McCarley RW. 1977. The brain as a dream-state generator: An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. Am J Psychiatry 134: 1335-1348.
    • [18] Hurovitz CS, Dunn S, Domhoff GW, Fiss H. 1999. The dreams of blind men and women: A replication and extension of previous findings. Dreaming 9: 183-193.
    • [19] Insel TR, Landis SC, Collins FS. 2013. The NIH brain initiative. Science 340: 687-688.
    • [20] Jahnke R, Larkey L, Rogers C, Etnier J, Lin F. 2010. A comprehensive review of health benefits of qigong and tai chi. Am J Health Promot 24: e1-e25.
    • [21] James I. 2003. Singular scientists J R Soc Med 96: 36-39.
    • [22] Jouvet M. 1999. The Paradox of sleep: The story of dreaming. MIT Press, Cambridge.
    • [23] Koch C. 2012. Consciousness, confessions of a romantic reductionist. MIT Press, Cambridge.
    • [24] Krey JF, Dolmetsch RE. 2007. Molecular mechanisms of autism: A possible role for Ca2+ signaling. Curr Opin Neurobiol 17: 112-119.
    • [25] Marambaud P, Dreses-Werringloer U, Vingtdeux V. 2009. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration. Mol Neurodegener 4: 20.
    • [26] Martin A, Chao LL. 2001. Semantic memory and the brain: Structure and processes. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11: 194-201.
    • [28] Nadel L, Hupbach A, Gomez R, Newman-Smith K. 2012. Memory formation, consolidation and transformation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36: 1640-1645.
    • [29] Nadel L, Moscovitch M. 1997. Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and hippocampal complex. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7: 217-227.
    • [30] Newman SD, Keller TA, Just MA. 2007. Volitional control of attention and brain activation in dual task performance. Hum Brain Mapp 28: 109-117.
    • [31] O'Keefe J, Nadel L. 1978. The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford University Press, New York.
    • [32] Orrenius S, Zhivotovsky B, Nicotera P. 2003. Regulation of cell death: The calcium-apoptosis link. Nature Rev Mol Cell Biol 4: 552-565.
    • [33] Rajah MN, McIntosh AR. 2005. Overlap in the functional neural systems involved in semantic and episodic memory retrieval. J Cogn Neurosci 17: 470-482.
    • [34] Revonsuo A. 2000. The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behav Brain Sci 23: 877-901.
    • [35] Ryan L, Lin C-Y, Ketcham K, Nadel L. 2010. The role of medial temporal lobe in retrieving spatial and nonspatial relations from episodic and semantic memory. Hippocampus 20: 11-18.
    • [36] Squire LR. 1992. Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychol Rev 99: 195-231.
    • [37] Stickgold R, Hobson JA, Fosse R, Fosse M. 2001. Sleep, learning, and dreams: Off-line memory reprocessing. Science 294: 1052-1057.
    • [38] Teyler TJ, Rudy JW. 2007. The hippocampal indexing theory and episodic memory: Updating the index. Hippocampus 17: 1158-1169.
  • No related research data.
  • No similar publications.

Share - Bookmark

Cite this article

Collected from

Cookies make it easier for us to provide you with our services. With the usage of our services you permit us to use cookies.
More information Ok