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Berger, Emmanuel (2007)
Publisher: Société des études robespierristes
Languages: French
Types: Article
Subjects: Directoire, justice, code des délits et des peines, forfaiture, surveillance
La justice du Directoire est principalement identifiée aux différentes violations infligées par le gouvernement afin de contrôler le pouvoir judiciaire et durcir la répression criminelle. Cette représentation est, en réalité, partiale. L’auteur tente de le prouver à travers l’analyse d’un aspect essentiel du système judiciaire directorial : la surveillance des juges. L’étude des normes et des pratiques montre que le mode de surveillance établi par le code des délits et des peines respecte la séparation des pouvoirs et privilégie une contrôle interne du corps judiciaire. Confronté à une surveillance qui lui échappe, le Directoire ne sera pas en mesure de la contester. Les raisons tiennent aux garanties posées par la législation, à plusieurs facteurs d’ordre conjoncturel et au refus du Corps législatif d’accroître les prérogatives du pouvoir exécutif. Face à de tels obstacles, le Directoire est contraint d’accepter l’indépendance constitutionnelle de la justice et les principes libéraux du code des délits et des peines, jusqu’à la fin du régime. Supervising the Judiciary during the Directory : a Liberal Legal Model Put to the Test Directory justice is mainly identified with the various violations inflicted on it by the government bent on controlling the judicial power and imposing tougher sanctions on crime. Such a representation is in reality one-sided. The author attempts to show this by analysing an essential aspect of the Directory judicature : the supervision of judges. The study of norms and practices reveals that the mode of supervision established by the Code of offences and penalties respected the separation of powers and favoured internal vetting by the judges themselves. Faced with a supervisory process beyond their control, the Directory were unable to challenge it. This was due to the checks posed by the legislation, to a number of circumstantial factors and to the refusal of the legislature to increase the prerogatives of the executive. Faced with these hurdles, the Directory were compelled to accept the constitutional independence of the judges and the liberal principles of the Code of offences and penalties until the end of the régime.
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