In addition to direct funding by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science research in the Netherlands is also funded by the following organisations:
As part of the ANR’s contribution to the promotion and implementation of open science, and in line with the National Plan for Open Science, the funded project coordinator and partners must undertake to submit the scientific publications (full text) resulting from the research project to an open archive, either directly in HAL or via a local institutional archive, in accordance with the conditions in article 30 of the French “For a digital republic” act. In addition, the ANR recommends giving preference to publication in open access journals or books.
At the national level
The Agency works with members of the wider French research and innovation community (funding agencies, research bodies, alliances, etc.) to better define and coordinate efforts to promote open access to publications and data. The ANR is represented on the steering committee of the Committee for Open Science’s permanent secretariat.
At the European and international levels
The ANR is also involved in various cross-border initiatives, where it upholds France’s position in favour of open science and bibliodiversity. It is a member of cOAlition S, which brings together several funding bodies to accelerate the transition to full and immediate access to scientific publications, and it supports the Plan S. The Agency is also a member of the French GO FAIR office.
The major research funder in Germany, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), has secured open access into its funding policy: “When entering into publishing contracts, researchers participating in DFG-funded projects should, as far as possible, permanently reserve a non-exclusive right of exploitation for electronic publication of their research results for the purpose of open access. Here, discipline specific delay periods of generally six to twelve months can be agreed upon, before which publication of previously published research results in discipline-specific or institutional electronic archives may be prohibited.”
In 2016, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) also published an Open Access strategy. On an information page on its website, the ministry expresses its support for the strengthening of Open Access. A BMBF directive on the funding of Open Access entered into force in June 2017.
1.Depositing publications in Green Open Access institutional or thematic repositories on ID/OA basis (Immediate Deposit - Optional Access).
and recommends to:
2. Publishing in free of charge Diamond Open Access Journals/platforms run by public organizations.
3. Publishing in commercial Gold Open Access Journals of recognised quality, with transparent and fair prices for genuine added value.
The BELSPO Open Research Data policy (https://www.belspo.be/belspo/OpenScience/openData_en.stm) complies with FAIR principles and its conception is to be considered fully within the EOSC framework. BELSPO expects a provisional DMP upon submission of the grant application, and a completed DMP no later than 6 months after the start date of the project. After the end of the project data should be deposited in a certified and trusted data repository. The BELSPO follows the FAIR research data management principles in the template of their DMP. Furthermore it encourage re-use of research data where possible."
F.R.S. - F.N.R.S.
Among funders, there is a mixed picture in terms of OA policies. Unlike most other Nordic countries Denmark has quite large private research foundations. None of the largest Danish public and private research funding bodies - the Independent Research Fund Denmark, the Innovation Fund Denmark, the DNRF, the Carlsberg Foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation – have a policy regarding open access to research data, with the Lundbeck Foundation as an exception.
The Lundbeck company and the Lundbeck Foundation have a clear policy on Open Access, disclosing clinical trial information and results summaries in public registries and shares clinical data generated by or sponsored by Lundbeck. Although all the private foundations generally seem to acknowledge the principle of Open Science, there is also a tradition of not adopting policies that are fundamentally driven by state actors.
The publicly funded research foundations have adopted a common OA policy based on the Danish Open Access Strategy. Only one of the private foundations in Denmark has done so. These foundations then require grant holders to make research results and articles publicly available. Data is specifically excluded from this requirement, and OA publication costs are not eligible for funding (and obviously neither is data management costs).
Public Danish funders with an Open Access Policy:
Private Danish funders with an Open Access Policy:
The new funding schema of the National research funder “Restart 2016-2020”, announced late 2016, included the requirement for Open Access to Research outputs of the projects funded by the National Research Promotion Foundation. Compliance of the researchers with the national open access policy, cannot yet be reported. Institutional policies will be the next step in order to be aligned to the European and National policy.
APCs have been in the agenda of the meetings/discussions for a long time in different levels and stakeholders.
By late 2017 the Cyprus University of Technology presented the «CUT Open Access Author Fund». The academic community of CUT is now able to apply for a maximum amount of €5000 to publish their research publications in Open Access journals or books.
Furthermore, there has been a great initiative from a pharmaceutical company which decided that within the framework of its Corporate Social Responsibility will finance the publications of authors with a maximum funding amount of €3000 if they provide their research in Open Access. The Senate of CUT approved the creation of the “Remedica Open Access Author Fund” and it’s been in act since 2013.
Croatian Science Foundation (CSF) is the central institution for funding competitive research projects since 2009. It provides support to scientific, higher education and technological programmes and projects, fosters international cooperation, and helps the realization of scientific programmes of special interest in the field of fundamental, applied and developmental research. CSF acts according to the Act on the Croatian Science Foundation, and open science and open access are not included.
Bulgaria have 3 main Research Funding Organizations:
- Ministry of Education and Science
- National Science Fund of Bulgaria (NSFB)
- State Agency for Science and Innovation (newly established in September 2020)
Bulgaria has no funding agency integrated in OpenAIRE yet.
There is no national program for financial support
for maintaining and developing institutional digital repositories for open access.
Open access to scientific information is included as a strategic objective in the institutional policies of several universities (Sofia university “St.Kliment Ohridski, Medical university “Prof. Dr. Paraskev Stoyanov”, Academy of economics “Dimitar Tsenov” etc.) and scientific organizations (Bulgarian Academy of Science).
As mentioned earlier, at the national level the policy framework is represented by the Science, Technology and Innovation Act 14/2011 released in 2011 (article 37 on “Open access dissemination”). This policy is implemented through the Spanish Strategy for Research Development and Innovation, the State Plans and the Action Plans derived from them. The national calls for R&D projects carried out within the framework of the State Plans of Scientific-Technical Research and Innovation (2013-2016, 2017-2020) follow up the guidelines regarding open access stated by the national mandate. At the regional level, open access policies have also been developed by some funders, such as the governments of Madrid, Asturias or Catalonia, also in line with the national and EU mandates.
It is stated that Spanish researchers funded by the State Plan for Scientific and Technological Research and Innovation should make public a copy of the final version of the accepted paper as soon as possible, and no later than 12 months after publication. Open Access copies must be available either through institutional or thematic repositories, and they should be taken into consideration within institutional evaluation practices. The State Plan encourages both green OA standard and gold OA standard. OA fees and costs (gold OA) are eligible for those R&D projects funded by the State Programme of Knowledge Promotion and Excellence and specific instruments within the State Programme of R&D addressing Societal Challenges.
The level of compliance of the open access national mandate was measured at institutional level. An exhaustive work was carried out in 2016 using a preliminary methodology that raised several technical issues to be addressed. The recommendations derived from this work can be found in the following document Towards Open Access by Default.
The Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) is Switzerland's leading provider of scientific research funding. With its federal mandate, it supports basic research in all disciplines, from philosophy and biology to nanoscience and medicine.
The SNSF (also co-signatory of the Berlin Declaration in 2006) requires grantees to provide open access to research results obtained with the help of SNSF grants (Article 44 Funding Regulations). As of 1 October 2013, researchers receiving SNSF funding can cover the costs of publishing articles in pure OA journals via the project budget. As of October 2018, APCs and BCPCs can be requested from a central OA fund (currently with no cap).
As of July 2014, the SNSF is expanding its OA policy to include monographs and editions. This corresponds to the rules applying to the publication of journal articles.
As of October 2017, the SNSF introduced an Open Research Data policy in its project funding scheme. Researchers have to include a data management plan (DMP) in their funding application and the SNSF expects that data generated by funded projects will be publicly accessible in digital databases provided there are no legal, ethical, copyright or other issues.
Among other public research funders of Switzerland, the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences (SAGW) supports the implementation of Open Access. The SAGW calls upon its member societies to obtain the necessary rights for their authors from the publishers. Several SAGW-sponsored journals are freely available.
The SNSF supports the principles of "Plan S". However, due to its own Open Access (OA-2020) policy, the SNSF is currently not in a position to sign "Plan S". According to an SNSF spokesman, this circumstance will be re-evaluated in 2020.
The Academy of Finland is a key source of funding for scientific research in Finland. In its policy on open science, the Academy of Finland states: “We require that the scientific publications on the results of Academy-funded research projects are open access, and that the research data produced by the projects are made widely available. The degrees of data openness may justifiably vary, ranging from fully open to strictly confidential.” The Academy is also part of cOAlition S, an international consortium of research funders that promotes open access to research publications in accordance with the Plan S initiative.
Business Finland is the Finnish government organization for innovation funding and trade, travel and investment promotion.In its Funding terms and conditions for research organisations, Business Finland states: “The Funder requires that the publications resulting of the project work and results and the research data must be made openly available following the beneficiary’s internal guidelines for open access.” See the funding terms and conditions of Business Finland.
Kone Foundation is an independent non-profit organisation funding research and the arts. In its Ethical considerations, reuse of research materials and open access, it states: “We recommend that data collected during research funded by Kone Foundation be archived for possible future use. – – We recommend that researchers we have been funding make their research results freely available to all. – – When it funds projects, the Foundation can also provide funding for the processing fees of open access journals.”
There are four national agencies distributing research funding in Sweden and advising the government on research-related issues. Three of them, the Swedish Research Council (VR), Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas) and Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (Forte) have mandates for open access to publications. The fourth, the Swedish Innovation Agency (Vinnova), has no open access mandate.
VR is the largest Swedish funding agency for basic research in Natural Sciences, Technology, Medicine, Humanities and Social Sciences at Swedish HEIs. VR signed the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in 2005 and adopted an OA mandate in 2010. Researchers receiving grants from VR must either publish their journal articles in electronic journals in open access (the mandate does not apply to monographs and book chapters). Alternatively, they have to archive the article in an open institutional or disciplinary repository immediately after, or within at most 6 (Natural Sciences, technology and Medicine) or 12 (Educational Sciences or Humanities and Social Sciences) months, of its publication in a traditional journal. Since 2015 only OA publications can be reported in the project reporting form for VR funded research. Starting in 2017, researchers who pay for APCs (Article Processing Charges) with funding from VR are required to publish their outputs with a CC BY licence. Formas adopted an OA mandate in 2010, and in 2011 Forte did likewise. These mandates align to a large extent with the VR mandate. Other councils have not yet adopted any OA mandates.Formas recommends the projects being funded by Formas to make the research data and meta-data openly available, as long as it does not conflict with the national Data Protection Act.A number of public and private actors funding research and development have OA mandates. The Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences - Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (RJ) – in 2010 adopted an OA mandate, demanding to make research publications open access within 12 months of publication. The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation have been including an open access mandate in their grant policies since 2010. This private foundation is an important funder for research, research networks and equipment in the Technical, Natural Sciences and Biomedical fields. In 2011, the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies also adopted an OA mandate.
For funder and publisher OA policies, please consult the following links:
Irish funding agencies have been very proactive about implementing Open Access policies aligned with international best practice. Some of the funding agency policies are listed below.