Key networks and aggregators

There is widespread awareness of Open Access in the Netherlands. Since 2005 all Dutch universities, the Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences, the KNAW, NWO, the Royal Library and SURF have signed the Berlin Declaration. In 2005, the Netherlands became the first country where all universities had their own repository with open access publications.

DANS, an institute of KNAW and NWO, provides access to all content of Dutch university repositories, KNAW, NWO, and a number of research institutes; through the national portal NARCIS. NARCIS provides access to (open access) publications, datasets of a number of data archives; and to descriptions of research projects, institutes and researchers. NARCIS has been developed by DANS, in close cooperation with the universities and other scholarly institutions. NARCIS is the Dutch source for scholarly output in OpenAIRE.

The Dutch Universities of Applied Sciences also encourage open access publishing. The HBO Kennisbank gives access to open access publications, including Bachelor’s and Master’s theses. The publications of the UAS professors and other researchers can also be found in NARCIS.

The national Open Access website,, provides information on open access publishing for various stakeholders.

Key networks and aggregators

The national and centralized repository HAL gathers around 20 % of the French publications. Some institutions have made the choice though to develop their own repositories.There are currently 121 open archives running in the French academic environment (listed in OpenDOAR).

Key Networks and Aggregators

Many universities and research institutions in Germany run an institutional or subject-based repository, some of these centrally managed by umbrella organizations. Today, over 270 OA repositories exist in Germany: 275 OAI repositories according to OpenDOAR, plus those listed by DINI (for more information about DINI see below) and OAI service providers (like BASEand OAIster).

The majority of German repositories are based on the OPUS software, followed by DSpace, MyCore, FEDORA and Eprints as well as locally developed software options. Over 40 repositories operate on platforms that are centrally managed by federal state library networks in Cologne, Berlin, Jena, Munich, and Constance. 
The most relevant organization in Germany for supporting a national repository infrastructure is the German Initiative for Network Information (DINI) having initiated several projects to support the technical development of a network of digital repositories and actively encourages the process of DINI certification. The certification process evaluates and improves the quality of publication services by referring to international standards and quality criteria. In consequence, the process improves data quality and conformity to enable services and the networking of repositories. Together with the DARE guidelines, the DINI certificate served as a basis for the DRIVER Guidelines for Content Providers.

Key networks and aggregators

In Belgium, repositories are not centralized. At present almost all universities and major university colleges run Open Access repositories. At present OpenDOAR list 34 Belgian repositories. Available full-text contents include doctoral and master theses, journal articles, conference papers, reports, books and book chapters. The Department of Economy, Science and Innovation (EWI) of the Flemish Government created the FRIS programme FRIS (Flanders Research Information Space) . FRIS research portal is the regional portal on researchers and their research in Flanders. It collects and presents information on researchers, research, scientific projects and publications in Flanders.

Key networks and aggregators

One central national aggregator collects publication data from Danish universities primarily: Danish National Research Database. The database itself was terminated in 2020, but the link provides links to information about the single institutions' output.

The Ministry of Higher Education and Science maintaines an Open Access Indicator that monitors the Open Access progress in Denmark. It can be found here: Danish Open Access Indicator.

Key networks and aggregators

Currently, there are 4 Open Access Institutional Repositories in which researchers can submit their research output in Cyprus:
  • The repositories GNOSISLEKYTHOS, provided by the University of Cyprus: The University of Cyprus Library as the regional NOAD of Cyprus offers GNOSIS as the institutional repository for the research outputs of the UCy researchers. Lekythos now mainly hosts digitised or digital born material of mainly archival and/or cultural heritage material. 
  • The repository KTISIS, Cyprus University of Technology: Ktisis is the Institutional Repository of the Cyprus University of Technology-Library. Ktisis is an open source institutional repository gathering any digital material relating to the various activities of the Cyprus University of Technology especially original research material produced by the members of the University.
  • The repository KYPSELI, Open University Cyprus: Kypseli, is the institutional repository of the Open University of Cyprus which host publications, thesis and digital cultural material.
National harvesters

There are two harvesters in Cyprus. Cyprus Open Archives harvests all repositories based in Cyprus, providing one point access to digitized or digital born material, including research publications, thesis or cultural heritage items. Another harvester hosted by the Ministry of Education and Culture was created mainly for providing digital items to Europeana and mainly harvests cultural heritage items.

Key networks and aggregators

Opin vísindiOpin vísindi, the joint repository for all universities in Iceland was opened in September 2016.

The scientific publications are openly available (Open Access) in accordance with article 10 from the Act on public support for research / 2003 No 3. The aim of Opin Vísindi is to increase the usage, publicity, and impact of scholarly research produced at Icelandic universities and to further promote scientific research in Iceland.

OpenDOAR link

Hirsla repository,, the repository of Landspitali University Hospital was established in 2006. Hirslan is the digital repository for research and scholarly publications of the Landspitali University Hospital faculty and staff. Hirslan also indexes all research articles in Icelandic health sciences journals and provides open access to these articles.

OpenDOAR link

Skemman,, is a joint digital repository for Icelandic universities which stores student theses from the universities.

OpenDOAR link

Key networks and aggregators

The open access repositories activities in Portugal are undergoing a strong momentum as the reflex of the growing interest and involvement of the Portuguese academic and scientific community in the questions related with Open Access to scientific literature.
In Portugal, the development of Open Access has mostly been carried out by the universities, who have taken different initiatives to expand access to research information. The first Portuguese Open Access initiatives were initiated by the University of Minho with the creation of RepositóriUM - its institutional repository (October 2003) and the subsequent definition of a pioneering self-archiving policy (January 2005). In early 2008, CRUP resent to the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) by resending the Conference of Rectors of the Portuguese Universities Declaration on Open Access and stated its support for the recommendations from the European University Association (EUA) Working Group on Open Access. In the middle of 2008, the RCAAP (Repositório Científico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal = Portugal Open Access Science Repository) initiative was established. The RCAAP initiative aims to increase the visibility, accessibility and dissemination of Portuguese research outputs, as well integrating Portugal worldwide in this domain. RCAAP Portal: collects, aggregates and indexes open access scientific contents from Portuguese institutional repositories, and forms a single entry point for searching, discovery and viewing thousands of scientific and scholarly publications.The main components of the RCAAP project are the following:
Currently, there are in Portugal 51 scientific open access repositories in a production stage and aggregated in the national portal - RCAAP Portal. Altogether, the running IR’s, gather more than 600 000 scientific documents in open access. The repositories which seem to have higher degrees of success are those with self-archiving policies implemented.
RCAAP offers SaS hosting services for repositories (based on DSpace) and OA journals (based on OJS). Currently RCAAP hosts 27 repositories and 22 journals.

Key networks and aggregators

Majority of Croatian institutional repositories are hosted on the national repository infrastructure DABAR (Digital Academic Archives and Repositories). DABAR is a centrally implemented technological solution based on open-source software Islandora. It provides Croatian researchers free, reliable, and interoperable digital repository infrastructure for archiving publications, AV materials as well as research data. It was developed through a collaboration of many Croatian institutions and provided as a technological service by SRCE. In August 2020 it hosted more than 120 active institutional repositories and 6 aggregated repositories. All repositories using DABAR infrastructure are compatible with the OpenAIRE Guidelines. This means that researchers can comply with Article 29.2 of the H2020 grant agreement regarding open access to articles with depositing into Croatian repositories.

In August 2020 57 institutional repositories were included into the OpenAIRE portal, 1 journal repository – HRČAK, 90 journals and RBI’s Database about scientific projects - POIROT which is used by the OpenAIRE as an authority file for projects funded by Croatian funders. However, the majority of institutional repositories hosted on DABAR are still focused on archiving dissertations and thesis, and more than half of all documents archived in all institutional repositories are available in OA.

Besides institutional repositories hosted on DABAR, there are still a few, but very important institutional repositories using mostly ePrints solution and focused more on archiving research publications and not only dissertations and thesis. The repository with most archived research papers is the Full-text institutional repository of the Ruđer Bošković Institute – FULIR and the majority of archived papers are in OA. However, the migration of FULIR to the DABAR infrastructure is planned for the future.

Portal of Croatian Scientific and Professional Journals - HRČAK is an OA publishing platform hosting over 490 Croatian OA journals and providing access to more than 220.000 full-text articles.

Croatian Scientific Bibliography – CROSBI is a Croatian national scientific bibliography which aims to gather information about all scientific and professional publications published by Croatian authors, to organize that information and put them into context by relating publications with their Croatian authors, institutions, projects and scientific fields. CROSBI is the oldest OA repository in Croatia. It was launched in 1997, and to date has gathered information on 660,000 publications.

Šestar (Pair of Compasses), launched in 2006  is a database of scientific instruments. Šestar is part of the e-infrastructure for the Croatian academic and research community whose purpose is to record and describe equipment for research conducted at Croatian public science and higher education institutions. The main goals are to improve the usage of existing scientific equipment, to encourage cooperation between scientific institutions and scientists themselves, to encourage cooperation between science and the economy, and to increase the transparency of the research in Croatia. Today, Šestar stores data on 3,000 scientific instruments.

Who’s Who in Science in Croatia gathers data on Croatian researchers offering comprehensive information including a biography, bibliography, education, employment, career advancements, awards, working experience, memberships, research interests, expertise, intramural and extramural activities, and
other skills and hobbies. The main goal is to increase the visibility of Croatian researchers and to enhance collaboration among researchers and communication between scientists and the public.

Key networks and aggregators


National Roadmap for research infrastructure 2017-2023:

BPOS serves as a national repository aggregator– it performs selective harvesting of metadata from Bulgarian institutional repositories with open access that support the OAI-PMH. All 8 institutional repositories are integrated with BPOS and the portal serves as a single entry point to the research data from all repositories.

Open Access repositories

1) Bulgarian OpenAIRE Repository Bulgarian OpenAIRE Repository - is a centralized cross-institutional repository and provides OpenAIRE compliance and free access to all peer-reviewed publications resulting from ERC funded FP7 projects in Bulgaria.2) New Bulgarian UniversityNBU Scholar Electronic Repository - is the first digital repository of scientific literature in Bulgaria. Faculty members can deposit their papers. Currently there are 565 publications with free online access. The New Bulgarian University encourages faculty members to deposit their research outputs into the repository. 3) Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Repository at IMI-BAS - is based on DSpace software with an active and configured OAI-PMH interface for metadata harvesting. There are more than 2100 publications from journals, conference books and reports. 4) University of Sofia "St. Kliment Ohridski" Research at Sofia University - There are initiatives at Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski" to support the development of Open Access. There is a digital repository for the main research outputs of the Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics. Other faculties are expected to join soon. 5) Medical University of Sofia (MUS)The Central Medical Library - was established in 1918. Today, it is an independent institution within the structure of the Medical University of Sofia (MUS) and has its 90-year experience in providing information resources and services for education, research, and professional practice. New open access repository started at address Repository is in process of building, for content is planned to include summaries of PhD theses, dissertations, electronic books, lectures, journal articles and CML-journal publications. 6) Burgas Free University (BFU)Academic Research Repository at the Burgas Free University - The research portal of BFU contains a collection of articles published in the Year-Books of BFU, articles from magazine “Biznes Posoki” and magazine “Contemporary Humanitaristics”, papers from international conferences of BFU, as well as articles, studies, papers and monographs of lecturers from BFU, published in other scientific editions. This site provides access to the research output of the institution. The interface is available in Bulgarian and English. Users may set up RSS feeds to be alerted to new content.

Bulgarian Portal for Open Science and the National repository

The Bulgarian Portal for Open Science, maintained by NACID, provides quick and easy access to scientific information and publicly funded research outputs, including resources from institutional open access repositories in Bulgaria.The system performs selective harvesting of metadata from Bulgarian institutional repositories with open access that support The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.

Since June 2020 there is a National repository for open access to scientific information. It is a cross-disciplinary repository administrated by National centre for information and documentation ( ) for scientific publications that are result from publicly funded research.

It is developed in compliance with the OpenAIRE Guidelines for Literature Repository Managers v.4.

Resources that are published in the repository are described by rich metadata and have a persistent identifier. The repository assigns a Handle.Net identifier to every resource that has not been previously assigned an identifier;

The portal and the repository form a system that provides researchers and the public at large with access to scientific publications and other research outputs free of charge in an open and non-discriminatory manner. The system enables the dissemination and enables the use and re-use of scientific research results, thus minimizing efforts and maximizing the benefits of the research.

BPOS and the repository are constantly improving, expanding and striving to transform the way research is conducted. Series of events, workshops and trainings is being carried out with the participation of researchers from Bulgarian RPOs. NACID and MES are working together to engage stakeholders as much as possible in the initiative for open access to scientific information.

Institutional repositories

In Bulgaria there are 8 institutional repositories, that are all integrated with BPOS:

- Repository at IMI-BAS -

- Research at Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”-

- Electronic Repository of Central Medical Library – Medical university Sofia

- Medical Academic Repository of MU-Varna -

- New Bulgarian University NBU Scholar Electronic Repository -

- Academic Research Repository at the Burgas Free University


Bulgarian OpenAIRE Repository

A centralized cross-institutional repository and provides OpenAIRE compliance and free access to all peer-reviewed publications resulting from ERC funded FP7 projects in Bulgaria.

E-Infrastructure for Bulgarian Language and Cultural Heritage CLaDA-BG (CLARIN and DARIAH)

CLaDA-BG is a Bulgarian virtual distributed research infrastructure, achieved connected related centers that use the services and resources of the infrastructure and provides a link with other centers and consumers as well. It provides access to resources and services electronically.

Coordinator: Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IICT-BAS), Sofia, Bulgaria

Financial coordinator: The Ministry of Education and Science

National Centre for High-performance and Distributed Computing

Coordinator: Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IICTBAS)

Financial coordinator: Ministry of Education and Science

Participation in European infrastructure: European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) and participation in PRACE through cooperation with NCHDC .

Science and Technology Park “Sofia Tech Park”

The Research infrastructure Laboratory complex, consists of 11 laboratory units and 7 of them are related with e-Infrastructures.

Coordinator: Association for Research and Development

Financial coordinator: Ministry of Economy, Bulgarian Small and Medium Enterprises Promotion Agency, Sofia Tech Park

Scientific coordinator: Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Technical University – Sofia,Medical University – Sofia

Open Access publishing

There are 61 Bulgarian Open Access journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ):

Open Access Organizations and Groups

Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IMI-BAS): Peter L. Stanchev, Ph.D., D.Sc., Professor at Software Engineering and Information Systems, e-mail: pstanche [@] and Assist. Prof. Georgi Simeonov at Software Engineering and Information Systems (IMI-BAS) e-mail gsimeonov [@] Bulgarian Information Consortium (BIC) / Български информационен консорциум with 38 members - 26 universities, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 agency, 3 National and Centrl libraries, 4 Public libraries, and 3 NGO - Radostina Todorova, New Bulgarian University Library, eIFL-OA country coordinator, rtodorova[@]

Key networks and aggregators

In Spain there is an important set of infrastructures that allow researchers to archive their work in open access: institutional repositories, thematic repositories, research open journals and research open journals portals. Among these, institutional repositories play a central role for the proper implementation of the National OA public policy.

RECOLECTA is an open platform based on DNet open source software that gathers all the national scientific repositories together in one place and guarantees that all OA repositories are interoperable among them. The services that RECOLECTA offers to National open access repositories are:

  • Validator: The RECOLECTA validator allows every repository to self-scan, as often as they like, their compliance level with national and international interoperability guidelines relating to metadata formats, as well as with OAI-PMH protocol operation. It also facilitates a clear identification of records with errors. Those repositories that do not comply with RECOLECTA-OpenAIRE interoperability guidelines are taken out of RECOLECTA. Thus, a common quality standard is guaranteed for the National open access repositories community.
  • Harvester: RECOLECTA harvests - on a weekly basis - metadata records of those scientific open access repositories that are compliant with the RECOLECTA-OpenAIRE interoperability guidelines and that request their inclusion in the RECOLECTA platform. For doing so, RECOLECTA uses the OAI-PMH address of their data provider.
  • Search engine: RECOLECTA provides direct and free access to the entire Spanish scientific production deposited in open repositories through a single interface.
  • Dissemination activities: News spread, organization of activities and helpdesk support through

RECOLECTA plays a key role to allow a proper implementation of the national open access to science policy. It promotes and coordinates the national infrastructure of Open Access digital scientific repositories in an interoperable manner based on the standards adopted by the global community.

The search interface of RECOLECTA provides access to more than 2M documents collected from the 142 data providers indexed in the platform.

Key networks and aggregators

Ministry of Education and Culture in cooperation with CSC – IT Center for Science provides information about research in Finland on websiteAt the moment (March 2021) there information about publications, projects, infrastructures and organisationsSections for people, researcher data and other activities are coming soon.

CSC - IT Center for Science is the most important Finnish service provider for researchServices are provided through several channels:

CSC is very important Finnish link to EOSC, for example as a member of EOSC Secreteriat Consortium, hosting EOSC Finnish Forum and as a member in several EOSC related networks EUDAT (&EUDAT Ltd.),EGI Federated data center and GEANT Associate member.

Promotion of open science and research is a joint effort by the entire research community, done in four expert panels and their working groups. The Finnish Federation of Learned Societies coordinates this work. Expert panels: Culture of open scholarshipOpen data, Open accessOpen education

 RDA in Finland - The National Node is hosted at CSC – IT Center for Science Ltd., hence actively acting as a mediator and promoting RDA in Finland and also abroad. National Node acts as the local point of contact between national data practitioners and RDA.

In January 2021 started EOSC Finnish Forum  as a national level coordination instrument that will allow the Finnish stakeholders to follow the EOSC developments and assess their implications, represent the collective interests of Finland to EOSC and discuss potential future EOSC-related collaborations.

Key networks and aggregators

Almost all universities and major university colleges have open access repositories for publications. Available full-text contents include doctoral and licentiate theses, journal articles, conference papers, reports, books and book chapters. There are approximately 40 repositories in Sweden registered in OpenDOAR. The majority of Swedish research publication repositories are members of a consortium based on DiVA, developed and run by Uppsala University. Others, like Gothenburg University, Karolinska Institutet, Chalmers Technical University and Malmö University, have implemented open source software like DSpace or created their own institutional repositories. The repositories include meta-data from all the academic publications of the institution and have been created to meet the needs of research evaluation and visibility.

Most of the records from the HEIs’ local repositories are harvested and can be found in the Swepub search service run by the National Library of Sweden. Swepub is the national publication database, which is also developing services for national analyses and bibliometric data, e.g. statistics on open access publishing in Sweden.

Key networks and aggregators


Alexandria University of St. Gallen OA-Info
Archive ouverte UNIGE University of Geneva OA-Info
BORIS University of Bern OA-Info
LORY Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, University of Lucerne,
University of Teacher Education Lucerne, ZHB Lucerne
edoc University of Basel OA-Info
Research Collection ETH Zurich OA-Info
Infoscience EPFL Lausanne OA-Info
MSF Field Research Médecins sans Frontières OA-Info
RERO DOC Reseau Romand OA-Info
Serval University of Lausanne OA-Info
ZORA University of Zurich OA-Info


Find a complete list on DOAR, here.

Key networks and aggregators


CORE is jointly run service between Jisc and the Open University. It is an aggregation of open access content from the UK and worldwide repositories and open access journals. It provides a range of services at a single point of interaction: aggregation, search, discovery, analytics, and an API for text mining access. It offers services to librarians, research managers to provide business intelligence functions to support quality management and also management and compliance reporting.

The service aggregates all open access content distributed across different repository systems worldwide, enriches this content and provides access through a range of services. For the most up to date usage statistics, please visit


Key networks and aggregators

Scientific output can currently (as of March 2020) be deposited in 41 Austrian multidisciplinary and discipline-specific repositories, which are listed in OpenDOAR.

Key networks and aggregators

RIAN is Ireland’s national portal for Open Access portals. RIAN began in 210 by harvesting the contents of the Institutional Repositories of Ireland's university libraries. As RIAN developed further, other Irish research repositories were added, and more continue to be added, with the aim of making RIAN the portal to Irish research.

Open Access repositories

Open Access repositories are currently available in all Irish universities and in a number of other higher education institutions:

Institutional repositories
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