Support and Landscape

The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic is the main body supporting research and development funded from public resources. There are public, private and state operated universities, research organisations (e.g. Slovak Academy of Science - SAS), research institutes and private companies. The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport realises the process of evaluation to perform R&D. The certificate for research organisation as result of evaluation process allows to use public resources for R&D.

Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information (SCSTI) is the national information centre and specialised scientific library of the Slovak Republic focused on natural, technical, economic and social sciences. The SCSTI provides several information systems supporting R&D on national level funded by the ministry, i.e. Central Registry of Publication Activities, Central Registry of Theses and Dissertations, Central Information Portal for Research, Development and Innovation and Slovak Current Research Information System (SK CRIS).

Support and Landscape

An important organisation for the promotion of Open Science in the Netherlands is SURF, the collaborative organisation for research universities, research institutes and universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands.

Also the Association of Universities in the Netherlands (VSNU) and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science are involved in promoting open science, especially in the field of open access of publications.

The national funders NWO and ZonMw also promote open science.

All are participants of the National Platform Open Science.

Support and Landscape

The major research funder in Germany is the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) which has secured open access into its funding policy: “When entering into publishing contracts scientists participating in DFG-funded projects should, as far as possible, permanently reserve a non-exclusive right of exploitation for electronic publication of their research results for the purpose of open access.

Here, discipline specific delay periods of generally six to twelve months can be agreed upon, before which the publication of previously published research results in discipline-specific or institutional electronic archives may be prohibited.” The DFG offers a number of funding schemes aimed at enabling open access publication (Open Access Publishing Programme) and the development and implementation of open access infrastructure (Infrastructure for Electronic Publications and Digital Scholarly Communication Programme).

Other funders like the Volkswagen Foundation (VolkswagenStiftung) support OA publishing in financial terms (see this overview at Beside nationally funded research, European research projects are gaining importance in recent years. Another prominient aspect of the German research world are the large research institutions including: the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, the Fraunhofer Gesellschaft and the Leibniz Association, al of whom actively support OA projects and initiatives.

The OA movement in Germany is frequently referred to in related community publications, for example the book "Open Access. Chancen und Herausforderungen" published 2007 by the Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission (also available in English: "Open Access. Opportunities and Challenges - a Handbook." European Commission / German Commission for UNESCO, 2008), and the special issue “Open Access”, Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie, Vol. 54 (2007), Nr. 4/5 (in German).

Support and Landscape

The Major Research Funder in Turkey is Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey - TÜBİTAK). The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey is the leading agency for management, funding and conduct of research in Turkey. It was established in 1963 with a mission to advance science and technology, conduct research and support Turkish researchers. The Council is an autonomous institution and is governed by a Scientific Board whose members are selected from prominent scholars from universities, industry and research institutions. TÜBİTAK is responsible for promoting, developing, organizing, conducting and coordinating research and development in line with national targets and priorities.

Support and Landscape

An overview of the Belgian research landscape can be found in the RIO country report for Belgium, what follows is a concise overview.

Within the EU, Belgium has a strong reputation for R&D and innovation, primarily due to the high quality of its education and research facilities. There are two separate university systems in Belgium:

  • six French-speaking universities (including two in Brussels) and 21 university colleges (‘hautes écoles’),
  • six universities and 22 university colleges (“hogescholen”) in Flanders (see the full list of universities).

Additionally, there are several subject-based research institutions. The larger strategic research centres in Flanders are often participating in EU and other international projects and are significant actors in the ERA (e.g. IMEC, VITO, VIB), as is the Walloon Space research pole (Liège) or the biomedical pole (Brussels-Charleroi).

The governance of the Belgian research system reflects the federal structure of the country, which consists of a federal, Belgian, government and a Flemish and French Community government. It is important to note that there is no overarching national research council in Belgium. The three main governmental funders are BELSPO (federal), FRS-FNRS (French Community) and FWO (Flanders). All three have Open Access policies in place.

  • The Federal Science Policy office (BELSPO) coordinates science policy at the federal level as well as on an international level. The federal government also coordinates some research of national interest such as defence, space and polar research. In the coming years, the federal research programmes will be revised. The revision will take into account the organisational changes of the federal science policy.
  • The Flemish R&D system is governed by the Department of Economy, Science and Innovation (EWI). EWI prepares, monitors and evaluates policy in the Economy, Science and Innovation policy area. Their main goal is to develop Flanders into one of the most advanced and prosperous regions in the world.
  • Two key agencies for STI policy are the innovation agency VLAIO and the main funding channel for research at universities FWO. These agencies govern the various policy instruments and measures of the Flemish region aiming at science and innovation. Flanders holding Company PMV governs several funds and measures that facilitate start and risk capital.
  • The Ministry of the French Community governs the fundamental research aspects (mainly through the F.R.S-FNRS National Scientific Research Fund) The regional governments oversee applied and industrial research with economic development purposes, and support technology guidance and funding for interfaces between research organisations, industry and universities.
    • The key agency within the Walloon administration is the DGO6 (Directorate General operational for Economy, Employment and Research).
Brussels-Capital's R&D policy is governed by the Ministry of the Brussels-Capital Region and the implementing agency is INNOVIRIS (Brussels Institute for Research and Innovation).

Support and Landscape

All the universities have local research support units, who in various degrees support researchers with their award applications and reporting.

Support and Landscape

Through the University of Cyprus Library, Cyprus has been participating in OpenAIRE projects since the beginning of the project in 2009, as a National Open Access Desk (NOAD). The main objectives of a NOAD are among others to support, promote and disseminate all relevant information regarding the policies of Open Access to all possible stakeholders.

Cyprus achieved this by establishing a collaboration mechanism among researchers, institutions, funding organizations, EC National Reference Points, repository managers, librarians and the librarians association – a real human network. Three parallel approaches are in continuous process for this achievement.

  1. Central approach: Cooperation with the Research Promotion Foundation and the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development (the local NPRs for OA) in order to establish a National policy and promote any Open Science issue to the local community. This approach has been extremely efficient since through a great collaboration we resulted excellent and important outcomes.

  2. Cluster approach: a) Co-organize/Participate in conferences of librarians/information scientists who acted as multipliers because they were able to disseminate the obligation derived by H2020 projects to their institutional researchers. b) Identification and participation with posters or papers in conferences / information days that took place in our region through which researchers were reached.

  3. Individual approach: Emails to the Cypriot coordinators/partners of SC39 FP7 and H2020 projects and phone calls were answered for questions & help requests.

In addition and in order to provide useful and essential information to the local community, in 2019 the website OpenScienceCy has been created and curated by the Cyprus OpenAIRE NOAD.

Support and Landscape gathers and publishes information on Open Access in Iceland and abroad, maintained by staff of the National and University Library of Iceland. Anna Sigridur Gudnadottir, .

Support and Landscape

Portuguese research environment has been changing and growing significantly in these almost two decades; it was very small and underdeveloped until the 1990’s. The number of researchers and the scientific output referenced internationally has been growing in the last years at an annual average rate higher than 10%. Considering the size and significance of their research output, as well their legal status, the Higher Education Institutions (HEI), i.e. Universities, the Polytechnics, the Higher Institutes and the Research Centres (RC) constitute the Portuguese core of the public research system. Other sorts of institutions also carry out scientific research in Portugal, but to a much smaller extent, such as public and private hospitals, institutes, private companies, etc. The HEIs carry out the most significant proportion of the scientific output produced in Portugal.

Support and Landscape

There are three public bodies that play a major role in the consolidation of the research at the national level in terms of:

Croatian Ministry of Science and Education (MSE) is the main national policy-maker, responsible for planning, funding and the research assessment. Advisory body of the Croatian Ministry of Science and Education is the National Council for Science, Higher Education and Technological Development (NCSHETD), responsible for the development of science. Expert body of NCSHETD is the Agency for science and Higher Education which proposes criteria for budgetary financing of scientific activity and higher education. The dialog among national key-players concerning open science agenda should be continuous.

Croatia implements several instruments, programs and policies with the aim of developing a substantial and strategic research policy, such as Strategy of education, science and technology (in Croatian), Croatian Research and Innovation Infrastructures Roadmap and Strategy for Fostering Innovation of the Republic of Croatia 2014-2020, aiming to provide recommendations for the establishment of a comprehensive R&I environment, to strengthen the Croatian national innovation system (NIS) and provide an efficient framework to foster the competitiveness of Croatian R&D and economy in general, through innovation and technological development. There are some mentions and future plans, but in general Croatian strategic documents are not considering open science agenda and open access to scientific publications and research data. Croatian Science Foundation (CSF) is central institution for funding competitive research projects since 2009. It provides support to scientific, higher education and technological programs and projects, fosters international cooperation, and helps the realization of scientific programs of special interest in the field of fundamental, applied and developmental research. CSF also develops and implements various sets of financial instruments for research career, including post-doc fellowships.

Other funder is Croatian Agency for SMEs, Innovations and Investments (HAMAG-BICRO) was founded by the Croatian Government in 1998, with the aim of supporting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, improving the innovation process and encouraging investments. It is a central institution in the national innovation system for supporting innovation and technology advancement. The Agency’s main objective is reflected in the strategic creation of a unique system that would provide support to entrepreneurs through all development stages of operation starting from research and development of an idea to commercialization and placement on the market.

More details on R&I system in Croatia for 2015, including relevant policies and funding, with particular focus on topics critical for EU policies can be find in RIO Country Report 2015 Croatia.

Data on Croatian research output related to the researchers, organizations, and projects are available via the Croatian Scientific Bibliography CROSBI and used for institutional and research evaluation.Research libraries can offer support to researchers mostly regarding open access to publications and research data and in building and managing certain open science infrastructures. Regarding open access to articles, researchers can comply with Article 29.2 of the H2020 grant agreement by depositing into one of the Croatian OpenAIRE compatible repositories.

Support and Landscape

The major research funder in Bulgaria is the National Science Fund. The Ministry of Education and Science oversees education and research in Bulgaria. The legal framework for founding of higher education institutions is set by the Law of Higher Education. According to Article 9 of this Law, the Parliament (Narodno sabranie) plays the key role in decision making about matters that concern the network of higher education institutions in the country.

Support and Landscape

Since 2007, the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology, FECYT plays a key role as a service provider for the research community and as an implementation agency of many R&D public policies. FECYT is a key actor within the OA policy. It works to provide standardization and interoperability within the repositories and academic libraries community through the national OA harvester RECOLECTA. FECYT also provides support to researchers and research managers on how to comply with open science related mandates (both at the national and EU levels), actively promoting and providing training on open science to all stakeholders. Lastly, FECYT provides policy-makers, governmental agencies and funders with training and information services about public funded research outputs in open access, and gives both support and advice on open science policies.

One of those activities is to hold the technical secretariat for expert groups on open science at the national level, gathering them to provide the required input on those matters to the RDI State Secretary. Also since June 2018, FECYT coordinates the INEOS pilot project “Infrastructures and Standards for Open Science” (Infraestructuras y Estándares para la Ciencia en Abierto), collaborating with the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) to jointly develop infrastructures and standards to support Open Science at the National level. The main objectives are to improve the quality of research data in repositories, to connect publicly funded research results with data, and to increase visibility of researchers by integrating the public profile of their CVs in institutional platforms.

Additionally, academic libraries and university programs are increasingly offering training in a full array of skills on open science and the reuse of research data. Courses, workshops, seminars are being provided by universities, research centres, libraries and research working groups.

Besides OpenAIRE, there are other EU-funded projects with Spain participation providing training, support and outreach activities related to open science and, broadly speaking, promoting responsible research and innovation, as the project MedOANet (already finished), FOSTER (already finished), the ORION Open Science project or the EOSC Synergy project.

Support and Landscape

The Finnish model for Open Science coordination involves universities, polytechnics, research institutes, funding bodies, libraries and archives. The coordination is supported by The Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (TSV) with funding from the Ministry of Education and Culture.

The coordination is based on collaboration between working groups, expert groups and strategy group. In the centre of the coordination work are fourOpen Science Expert PanelsCulture of open scholarship, Open data, Open access and Open education.

One result of this cooperation is the Declaration for Open Science and Research 2020-2025. The declaration provides a common direction for the development of the research community. The declaration outlines a vision, where open science and research are seamlessly integrated into researchers' everyday work.

Open Science coordination in Finland participates actively in many open science networks in Europe and globally (eg.CoNOSC and EOSC).

Responsible research is present in the activities and communication of the TSV and the research support bodies associated with it: the Open Science Coordination, the Publication Forum (JUFO), the Committee for Public Information (TJNK) and the Finnish National Board on Research Integrity TENK.

Support and Landscape

Most of these institutions have jointly signed the Berlin Declaration in 2006 through their governing bodies:

In addition, some Swiss research institutions have also signed the Berlin Declaration as a single institution:

    • University of Zurich, 2004
    • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), 2006
    • Paul Scherrer Institut, 2006
    • University of St. Gallen, 2006
    • University of Basel, 2007
    • University of Bern, 2007
    • University of Fribourg, 2008
    • Swiss Centre of Expertise in the Social Sciences (FORS), 2010
    • Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, 2015
    • University of Lucerne, 2015

Support and Landscape

At a national level, Jisc offers open access support to its own members and as the National Open Access Desk (NOAD) for OpenAIRE2020.  

For queries regarding OA in general, Jisc Monitor, Jisc Publications, Router, or if you are a UK project funded by Horizon 2020, please email us:  -- just make sure to indicate which area your query is about in the subject line.

Support and Landscape

The National Research Environment
Major research funding bodies

Austrian Science Fund FWF

The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is Austria's central funding organization for basic research. The purpose of the FWF is to support the ongoing development of Austrian science and basic research at a high international level. Therefore, the FWF makes a significant contribution to cultural development, and to the advancement of our knowledge-based society.

Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG)

The Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) is the national funding institution for applied industrial research in Austria. The FFG offers a comprehensive range of services for Austrian enterprises, research institutions and researchers – from the management of public funding programmes to consulting services in all phases of technology development and innovation, from support for integration into European research programmes and networks to the promotion of Austria's interests at the European and the international level.

Austria Wirtschaftsservice Gesellschaft (aws)

Austria Wirtschaftsservice Gesellschaft mbH (aws) is the Austrian federal promotional bank. It assists companies in their implementation of innovative projects by granting loans, awarding subsidies and issuing guarantees at favourable interest rates, particularly in cases in which it is not possible for these companies to obtain the necessary funds in a sufficient amount from other sources of financing. In addition, it provides support in the form of specific information, advisory and other services to prospective, established and expanding companies.

Research funding Ministries

Federal Ministry for Climate Action, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation and Technology(bmvit)

Information about funding programs and open tenderings are available mainly in German on the ministries websites. A service called Förderkompass is provided by the bmvit which aggregates information about current different research funding programs and institutions.

Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research (bmbwf)

There is a wide range of research in Austria and current research programs and projects. Furthermore an initiative called Forschungsatlas provides all links and records in social media about research in Austria in real time. Information about funding programs and open tenderings are available mainly in German on the ministries websites.

Further funding bodies

Academy of Sciences (OeAW)

The OeAW as the largest non-university research institution cultivates discourse and the cooperation between science, the public, politics and the economy and practices applied and open basic research at its 29 institutes at the highest international level.As a public institution, the OAeW advances national and international scientific cooperation, offers researchers far-reaching advancement and career-development opportunities and supports up-and-coming scientists with fellowships as well as training and advanced training. The OAW sustainably supports the development of Austria as an innovative and future-proof knowledge-based society.

The Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft

Founded in 1960, the Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft (LBG) is a research institution with a thematic focus on medicine, life sciences and the humanities, social sciences and cultural sciences, and is specifically targeting new research topics in Austria. Together with academic and implementing partners, the LBG is currently running 20 Ludwig Boltzmann Institutes (LBIs) and develops and tests new forms of collaboration between science and non-scientific actors such as companies, the public sector and civil society.
Named after the famous Austrian physicist, mathematician and philosopher Ludwig Boltzmann, the LBG still takes its lead from his wide range of academic interests, by pursuing interdisciplinary approaches. Socially relevant challenges, to which research can contribute, are to be recognized at an early stage and taken up. In 2016, the LBG Career Center, which is supporting 200 pre and postdocs, has been set up. In addition, the LBG Open Innovation in Science Center (LBG OIS Center), which is revealing the potential of open innovation to science, was launched.
The LBG is financed by a mix of public and private funding, the total budget for the year 2016 amounted to 31.3 million euros. About 31 percent of the funds come from the budget of the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research. The Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft employs a total of approximately 550 people. Since the comprehensive reorganisation of the LBG in 2002, LBIs can only be established on the basis of calls for proposals and must operate under the scrutiny of international expert review.

Christian Doppler Research Association (CDG)

The Christian Doppler Research Association promotes the cooperation between science and business. Specifically, this takes place in specially established research units with fixed terms, in which application-orientated basic research is pursued: Christian Doppler Laboratories at universities and non-university research institutions, Josef Ressel Centres at universities of applied sciences.Under the direction of highly qualified scientists, research groups work in close contact with the commercial partners on innovative responses to business-related research issues.

Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB)

The Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) has a long tradition of promoting research: Through its Anniversary Fund, the OeNB supports outstanding scientific work above all in the field of economics and medicine, but also projects related to the social sciences and the humanities.In addition, the OeNB sponsors a number of grants and awards, such as the Klaus Liebscher Award or the Olga Radzyner Award, and offers a visiting research program for young scientists.

Austrian Partnership Programme in Higher Education & Research for Development (APPEAR)

APPEAR is a programme of the Austrian Development Cooperation (ADC) with the aim to implement its strategy for support of higher education and research for development on an academic institutional level in the ADC’s southern priority countries and key regions and in three priority countries of the South Caucasus and Black Sea Region.The overall objective is to strengthen the institutional capacities in higher education, research and management in the addressed countries through Academic Partnerships with Austrian higher education institutions and master’s and PhD scholarships as a contribution to effective and sustainable reduction of poverty.

Commission of Development Research at the OeAD–GmbH (KEF)

The Commission for Development Research at the OeAD-GmbH (KEF) aims at bridging the gap between science and development by supporting a development-oriented approach in research and science. The main principle is the incorporation of the development policy approach in science and research.

Support and Landscape

There are eight universities in Ireland: University College Dublin (UCD), University College Cork (UCC), the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG), Maynooth University (MU), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin City University, the University of Limerick, and Technical University Dublin. Additionally Ireland has 14 Institutes of Technology, including the Dublin Institute of Technology and 7 Colleges of Education. A number of other third level institutions provide specialist education in such fields as art and design, medicine, business studies, rural development, theology, music and law.
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