Since 2013, the Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information (SCSTI) serves as the National point of reference for the policy of "Open Access and preservation of scientific information", becoming NOAD for Slovakia in 2015. In 2016 a Contact Office for Open Access was established at SCSTI.
In 2017, the OGP Action Plan for years 2017-2019 was adopted.
Since 2018, SCSTI started with providing Open Access courses.
In 2019, the new OGP Action Plan for years 2020-2021 was adopted.


There are 14 research universities in the Netherlands, organised in the VSNU (Association of Universities in the Netherlands). 30 per cent of all research is done at these universities. All eight University Medical Centres (UMCs), which are members of the Netherlands Federation of University Medical Centres (NFU), are partnerships between a teaching hospital and the medical faculty of a university.

In addition, there are several research institutes: 10 hosted by KNAW (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences) and 9 by the National Research Funder NWO.

The 36 universities of applied sciences are taking on a growing role in research and are organised in the Netherlands Association of Universities of Applied Sciences (Vereniging van Hogescholen).

All information on the Dutch research environment can be found at 'Science in figures' of the Rathenau Institute.



France has played an important role in the European open access movement, particularly in the launch of theBerlin declaration, a cooperation between the Max Planck Society and people from the CNRS. French research institutions (CNRS, INSERM in particular) played a major role in early 2000, especially with the launch of theHAL open archive in 2001.

France also set forth an important initiative regarding open access journals with the Revues.org platform founded in 1999 and specialized in Humanities and Social Sciences. It is operated by a joint service unit bringing together the CNRS, two universities (Aix-Marseille and Université d’Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse) and a grande école (EHESS). Revues.org hosts more than 465 journals, 192 of them being fully open access. Universities and grandes écoles joined the open access movement gradually and it is worth noting that some universities have been working on open access publishing (Nice with the database Revel) and Open Archives (in Toulouse for instance) since 2003. After the signature of a national agreement in 2006, aiming to foster OA, some universities and grandes écoles established an institutional open archive. As of 2017, 95 of them do have an institutional repository. Couperin also facilitates this movement through a working group focused on open access. The movement is progressively growing and for example, the Jussieu call shows a real concern of the research community on OA issues.


Very few countries offer such a diverse landcsape in higher education as Germany. Germany is currently home to 390 Higher Education establishments and over 250 public research institutions. Most of the higher education institutions are publicly funded (240), however a significant percentage of private universities exist which historically played a subordinate role but in recent times have gained increasing popularity.

Currently, major changes are taking place in German higher education: The Federal Government and the federal states initiated the 'Excellence Initiative' to promote competition between universities. A large number of new ideas and projects have already been realized as a result of this Excellence Initiative. Furthermore, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) released its Open Access Strategy entitled "Open Access in Germany" on September 20th 2016, which contains a clear commitment to the principles of open access and open science.


The National Research Environment

Turkey is about to be one of the biggest higher education landscape with the 207 universities in Europe. The 129 of these universities are financed publicly, and the 78 left are the private universities who are also performing the higher education activities in the national and international level. Yüksek Öğretim Kurulu -YÖK (The Council of Higher Education - CoHE)has been administrating the activities of the universities in Turkey.

Meet the OpenAIRE Turkey NOAD!


Belgium recognized in an early stage the importance of Open Access. Many Belgian research organisations subscribed to the Berlin Declaration on Open Access in 2007, at a conference organised by DRIVER. This ambition was affirmed by the Brussels Declaration on Open Access, signed in 2012 by the Belgian, Flemish and French Community ministers of research. The declaration makes Open Access the default in circulating the results of Belgian academic and scientific research.
The creation of the Immediate Deposit and Optional Access mandate (ID/OA) at Université de Liège (ULg) in 2007 paved the way for Belgian OA mandates. OA policies were developed by more than 15 Belgian research organisations. Consequently, Belgium now has a vast network of, mostly institutional, open access repositories.  


In the past few years, research in Cyprus has increased considerably due to the integration of the country into the EU. The establishment of six more universities, both public and private, in addition to the University of Cyprus that already existed, has also contributed to this increase. The main funder of research in Cyprus is the EU, which has supported research by providing the majority of the funding. Since the EU has given a significant boost to research activity nationally by being the primary funder of research, its role is considered particularly important for further support of research both for researchers and the organizations that employ them.

In March 2020, Research and Innovation related issues were approached in an integrated and comprehensive manner under the competencies of the Deputy Minister for Research, Innovation and Digital Policy, and the operation of the Research and Innovation Foundation as the executive arm of the system  

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Image Source: https://chiefscientist.gov.cy/strategy-and-policy/governance/

According to the official page of the Chief scientist for research and innovation of the Republic of Cyprus, the levels of the governance are described as follows:

Strategy Level

Deputy Ministry of Research, Innovation and Digital Policy

The Deputy Ministry for Research, Innovation and Digital Policy is the competent authority for the design and implementation of the Government ‘s policy for Research and Innovation (R&I).

By supporting scientific research, investing in innovative entrepreneurship and implementing an ambitious digital transformation reform, the Deputy Ministry aspires to develop a modern and efficient state, competitive at European and international level, and a dynamic digital economy, where every citizen and every business will be able to grow and prosper.

National Board for Research and Innovation

The National Board for Research and Innovation (NBRI) is an advisory body to the President of the Republic for defining R&I strategy. NBRI is responsible for promoting and implementing the National Strategic Framework for R&I, for submitting proposals and suggestions on strategy issues and for monitoring the implementation of actions adopted at policy level. NBRI meets on a regular basis and its work is supported by the competent Directorate of the Deputy Ministry for Research, Innovation and Digital Policy, acting as NBRI secretariat. The Chief Scientist is an ex officio member of NBRI and facilitates its work by formulating recommendations on the national R&I strategy, policy and the structure and operation of the national R&I governance system.

Policy Level

Chief Scientist

The Chief Scientist coordinates and supervises the formulation of the national R&I policy and the overall operation of the National R&I Governance System, including the departments and bodies involved in both the policy and operational levels. In addition, the Chief Scientist participates as ex-officio member and supports the work of NBRI to formulate proposals for the national R&I Strategy and its implementation and proposals regarding the structure and operation of the national R&I governance system.

Committee of Ministry Research and Innovation (R&I) Coordinators
The Committee of Ministry Research and Innovation (R&I) Coordinators operates under the Chairmanship of the Chief Scientist. Each Ministry appoints a R&I Coordinator as a focal point of communication for Research and Innovation matters.

Operational Level

Research and Innovation Foundation (RIF)

RIF is the executive arm of the National R&I Governance System.

Open Science, Open Access to research outputs will play a key role to the achievement of the vision of the Republic. In March 2020 the Minister of Finance stated that "Opening our data is providing an unlimited perspective on research, innovation, political accountability, development, democracy and progress. The richness of data that the government produces and holds is not the property of the Government and should not be locked in Ministry drawer, instead, it belongs to the citizens." The Deputy Ministry of Research, Innovation and Digital policy announced at the same event that the issue of Openness is a crucial point to the fulfilment of the tasks of his deputy ministry.


In 2016 the portuguese Government and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) have defined Open Science as a priority. The Council of Ministers approved a resolution with the guidelines for the National Open Science Policy and mandated the MCTES to create an Interministerial Working Group (WG-NOSP). That WG produced an initial report with a diagnosis and characterisation of various dimensions and components of Open Science in Portugal,  that was followed by a second report containing a set of comprehensive recommendations (encompassing open access and open data, infrastructures and preservation, research evaluation and social responsibility of science). The government never formally adopted those recommendations, but both reports are available (in Portuguese). In 2019, MCTES has commissioned the Open Science agenda to the Portuguese national funder, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT). FCT intends to develop a national research data roadmap.   
Currently there is no formal responsibility for funding open and FAIR science in Portugal. Despite that,  Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) has been funding initiatives and infrastructures related with open access and open science, especially the RCAAP (Scientific Open Access Repositories of Portugal) project since 2008. On the other hand, FCT is also the funding agency for the infrastructures included in the National Roadmap of Research Infrastructures of Strategic Relevance, which are instrumental for securing open and FAIR research practices.
 In Portugal, the development of Open Access has mostly been carried out by the universities, which have taken different initiatives to expand access to research information. The first Portuguese Open Access initiatives were initiated by the University of Minho with the creation of RepositóriUM, its institutional repository (October 2003) and the subsequent definition of a pioneering self-archiving policy (January 2005). In the middle of 2008, the RCAAP (Repositório Científico de Acesso Aberto de Portugal = Portugal Open Access Science Repository) initiative was established.
At the national level there are several institutional mandates, currently 26 see ROARMAP.


Support and Landscape

Croatia is part of the European Research Area (ERA) and supports open science through different Open Access initiatives. Numerous bottom-up initiatives at the national level make Croatia a vibrant OA environment. Open Access movement started in Croatia in 1997 with the Croatian scientific bibliography CROSBI introducing OA repository functions from the very beginning. Since then, several OA national initiatives started like Who’s Who in Science in Croatia, HRČAK repository of the Croatian OA journals, ŠESTAR repository of the scientific equipment, DABAR infrastructure for OA institutional repositories, etc.
There are nine public universities (Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek, Zadar, Dubrovnik, Pula and Slavonski Brod) and 30 public and private polytechnic institutes, with more than 180.000 students enrolled. Research in Croatia is also conducted by 25 public institutes and six technology centres. There are approximately 11.500 active researchers in Croatia. The largest university in Croatia is the University of Zagreb with more than 70.000 enrolled students, and the largest research institute is Ruđer Bošković Institute with more than 550 researchers.

National Initiatives

Three public bodies play a major role in the consolidation of the research at the national level in terms of:
• strategy with the Ministry of Science and Education (MSE)
• funding with the Croatian Science Foundation (HRZZ)
• development and assessment with the National Council for Science, Higher Education and Technological Development (NCSHETD) and Agency for Science and Higher Education.

Croatian Ministry of Science and Education (MSE) is the primary national policy-maker, responsible for planning, funding and the research assessment. The Advisory board of the Croatian Ministry of Science and Education is the National Council for Science, Higher Education and Technological Development (NCSHETD), responsible for the development of science. Expert body of NCSHETD is the Agency for Science and Higher Education which proposes criteria for budgetary financing of scientific activity and higher education. The dialogue among national key-players concerning open science agenda should be continuous.
Croatia implements several instruments, programs and policies intending to develop a substantial and strategic research policy, such as Strategy of education, science and technology (in Croatian), Croatian Research and Innovation Infrastructures Roadmap and Strategy for Fostering Innovation of the Republic of Croatia 2014-2020, aiming to provide recommendations for the establishment of a comprehensive R&I environment, to strengthen the Croatian national innovation system (NIS) and provide an efficient framework to foster the competitiveness of Croatian R&D and economy in general, through innovation and technological development. There are some mentions of Open Access in the Croatian strategic documents. Still, in general, Croatian strategic documents are not considering Open Science agenda and Open Access to scientific publications and research data.

Croatian Science Foundation (CSF)is the central institution for funding competitive research projects since 2009. It provides support to scientific, higher education and technological programs and projects, fosters international cooperation, and helps the realization of scientific programs of particular interest in the field of fundamental, applied and developmental research. CSF also develops and implements various sets of financial instruments for a research career, including post-doc fellowships.

Another funder is Croatian Agency for SMEs, Innovations and Investments (HAMAG-BICRO) was founded by the Croatian Government in 1998, to support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, improving the innovation process and encouraging investments. It is a central institution in the national innovation system for supporting innovation and technology advancement. The Agency’s main objective is the strategic creation of a unified system that would provide support to entrepreneurs through all development stages of operation starting from research and development of an idea to commercialization and placement on the market.

More details on R&I system in Croatia for 2015, including relevant policies and funding, with particular focus on topics critical for EU policies, can be found in RIO Country Report 2015 Croatia.

Data on Croatian research output related to the researchers, organizations, and research grants are available via the Croatian Scientific Bibliography CROSBIand used for research evaluation. Research libraries offer support to researchers regarding open access to publications and research data by building and managing open science infrastructure, enabling them the compliancy with Article 29.2 of the H2020 grant agreement.


The Bulgarian research community is informed about the benefits of Open Science, Open Data, and Open Access. Some of the main activities in Bulgaria concerning open access include:
  • Maintaining the National Open Access Desks which connect researchers, research institutions, and policymakers at a national level on the one end, and the OpenAIRE project services on the other. The focus of the National Open Access Desks activities supports compliance with the EC Open Access policies;
  • Maintaining the Bulgarian repositories for Open Access;
  • Organizing conferences, workshops and seminars;
  • Developing a policy vision for the development of the Open Access and Open Data, presented to the EC.
The main project dissemination results include: promote open availability of publications and data and participation in scientific conferences in Bulgaria. Bulgaria is also a part of the ERAC Standing Working Group (SWG) on Open Science and Innovation.


The Spanish National Open Access Policy is based on three pillars: the legal framework set by the Spanish Science, Technology and Innovation Act, the National Aggregator for Open Access contents RECOLECTA, and the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT) as the public institution that works in supporting the National Government in the design and in the implementation of the open access policy.

The Act 14/2011, of June 1, on Science, Technology and Innovation, which urges researchers to deposit the final digital version of their contributions to journals in an open access repository.

Article 37. Open access dissemination:

1. Public workers of the Spanish Science, Technology and Innovation System will drive forward the development of own or shared open access repositories for the publications of their researchers, and will establish systems allowing their connection to similar national or international initiatives.

2. Researchers whose research is financed mostly with funds from the General Budget of the State will make public a digital final version of the contents that have been accepted for publication in research journals, as soon as possible and no later than twelve months after the official date of publication.

3. The electronic version will be made public in open access repositories recognised in the field of knowledge of the research or in open access institutional repositories.

4. The public electronic version may be used by public administrations in their assessment procedures.

5. The Science and Innovation Ministry will facilitate centralized access to repositories and their connection to similar national or international initiatives.

6. The above is understood without prejudice of the agreements by virtue of which rights over the publications have been conferred or transferred to third parties, and will not be applied when the rights over the results of research, development and innovation are liable to protection.

The national calls for R&D projects carried out within the framework of the National Plans of Scientific, Technical and Innovation Research 2013-2016 and the Plan Estatal de Investigación Científica y Técnica y de Innovación 2017-2020 (in Spanish) are based on this legal framework.

The National Aggregator for Open Access contents RECOLECTA is the source of primary data to measure the degree of compliance with the national open access policy by researchers.

FECYT is the public agent of the state public sector dependent on the Ministry of Science and Innovation, which supports it in the work of implementation of the national policy of open access and in the design of the national policy of open science.


The Ministry of Education and Culture is responsible for the planning and implementation of higher education and science policy. There are a total of 13 universities and 22 universities of applied sciences in Finland. A total of 12 State research institutes operate under the auspices of the other ministries. The Academy of Finland is a key source of funding for scientific research in Finland, and it operates under the mandate of the Ministry's Department for Higher Education and Science Policy.

The Federation of Finnish Learned Societies (TSV) is an independent state-subsidized organisationthat promotes the communication and publication of scientific data and increases awareness of research data and its utilisation by society. TSV coordinates national level Open Science co-operation.


The Swedish Government’s direction for the next ten-year research policy, as set out in the Swedish Research Bill 2016, includes the goal that scientific publications which are the result of publicly funded research should be made immediately open access upon publication. 

In the Research Bill Knowledge in Collaboration the Government states that open access to research results contributes to maintaining and furthering excellence in research. Open access to research output can advance science by making it possible for more researchers to validate and build on previous work. Further, it states that open access plays an important role in society at large and that research and innovation to a large extent is carried out within the industry and in the business and public sectors. All stakeholders have a shared responsibility in fulfilling this objective. The Government states that clear incentives and mechanisms are needed in order to encourage researchers to publish their research output immediately open access. 

At the beginning of 2017, the National Library of Sweden and the Swedish Research Councilreceived appropriation directives from the Swedish Government. According to directives, the National Library shall act as a national coordinating body in the work towards a transition to open access to scholarly publications and the Swedish Research Council shall coordinate the national work in establishing open access to research data. The National Library of Sweden and the Swedish Research Council shall do this in mutual consultation with each other.

In the Swedish Research Council’s report Proposal for National Guidelines for Open Access to Scientific Information(2015), a number of challenges to a transition to an open access publishing system were identified. On the basis of this report, the National Library of Sweden initiates and coordinates the following studies concerning:

  • The current merit and resource allocation system versus incentives for open access
  • Funding for a transition from a subscription-based to an open access publishing system
  • Open access to scholarly monographs
  • Financial and technical support for converting peer-reviewed and scholarly journals from toll access to open access
  • Monitoring of compliance with open access policies and mandates

Representatives from all main stakeholders with a key role in the national transition to an open access publishing system will participate in one working group for each study. This includes HEI’s, research funders and researchers. The studies will result in further recommendations to the Government on how to nationally solve the identified obstacles. The work will be coordinated and facilitated by the National Library of Sweden. More information can be found here: https://www.kb.se/samverkan-och-utveckling/oppen-tillgang-och-bibsamkonsortiet/open-access-and-bibsam-consortium/open-access.html

As a part of the work with the assignment, the Swedish Research Council will:

  • Contribute to and facilitate constructive discussions on research data management and research data access
  • Be policy driving in questions regarding open access to research data, e.g. concerning the production of guidelines and creating incentives
  • Work both nationally and internationally (e.g. lessons learned and cooperations)
  • Work in close cooperation with research

More information about work with the assignment can be found here: https://www.vr.se/sidfot/om-vetenskapsradet/regeringsuppdrag/uppdrag-om-oppen-vetenskap.html


According to the EC’s Open Science monitor based on Scopus and Unpaywall data, Switzerland holds a top position for the percentage of OA publications. As the very high proportion of green OA shows, this seems to be due to a well-developed network of OA repositories and support teams at most research institutions.

The academic research institutions of Switzerland receive much of their financial support either from the respective cantons and/or from the federal Swiss government (State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation - SERI). As a result of these federal dependencies, national policies and guidelines have not been implemented in the past. However, a national Open Access strategy and an action plan adopted in 2017 help to align the different approaches.


Most government funding for research in UK universities is directed through Research Councils UK (RCUK), Wellcome Trust, and UK Research and Innovation. Those three funders have all adopted mandates for open access dissemination of the research outputs that they fund. Major charity funders include Cancer Research UK and the British Heart Foundation, both of whom have open access policies. Further information on funding requirements and publisher policies in the UK and internationally are available through the Sherpa/JULIET and Sherpa/ROMEO services.

Jisc and Jisc Collections have been foremost in their efforts to promote open access initiatives: promoting the desiderata for what publishers could do; the designing and building of such services as the Publications Router and Jisc Monitor, and the continued development of Counter compliant metrics through IRUS. RIOXX standards also are aligned with various UK repositories and with the work done for OpenAIRE Advance.


 Austria plays an active part in the European Research Area. 22 public and 11 private universities, 19 universities of applied sciences, as well as public research organisations are acting in the field of research and development.

EOSC in Austria

EOSC national representatives

EOSC Austrian Governance Board Country Delegate is Stefan Hanslik from the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research. 

Stefan Hanslik gives answers to these questions and explains his role in the Governance Board in the following three video interviews: 

The videos were produced within the Austrian role as a partner in the H2020 project EOSCSecretariat. They are licensed with an open CC-license, so we encourage further reuse and dissemination.

Austrian Preparation for EOSC Contribution:

In the call for proposals "Digital and social transformation in higher education", some submissions also revolved around the topic of Open Science and Open Access. One notable example is "Austrian Transition to Open Access 2" (AT2OA²) the continuation of AT2OA, which aims to further promote the free accessibility of scientific publications. This also applies to the projects "RIS Synergy", "Austrian DataLab Austria" and "FAIR Data", which are combined in the Research Data cluster and are being implemented (under the lead of Vienna University of Technology and Graz University of Technology). 

They are among those projects that will further advance the European Open Science Cloud. EOSC is a data infrastructure referred to as the "Internet of scientific data and data services" or European Open Science Cloud, i.e. a Europe-wide user-friendly environment of digital research data consisting of existing e-infrastructures across national and disciplinary borders. It aims to provide European researchers with access to first-class computing, storage and analysis capacities located in Europe. This will also facilitate the open exchange of data, e.g. as part of the "Open Research Data Pilot". To achieve this goal uniform international standards are needed.

In 2018, during the Austrian Presidency of the Council of the European Union and through the Vienna Declaration on the European Open Science Cloud, the EOSC Governance was launched at the University of Vienna.

EU Funded Projects

EOSC Pillar in Austria - AUSSDA / VUL (Vienna University Library)

“Coordination and Harmonisation of National Initiatives, Infrastructures and Data services in Central and Western Europe” (Lisa Hönegger)

“EOSC-Pillar is part of EOSC regional projects funded under the INFRAEOSC 5b call and will work in sync with other regional projects such as EOSC Nordic, NI4OS-Europe, EOSC Synergy and ExPaNDS. These projects aim to coordinate the efforts of the national and thematic initiatives in making a coherent contribution to EOSC.”

EOSC Secretariat - TU Wien

Austrian EOSC Secretariat team: Andreas Rauber, Paolo Budroni (Austrian National E-IRG Delegate), Barbara Sanchez, Juliana Giroletti, Katharina Flicker, Bernd Saurugger  



Ireland has considerable expertise in developing Open Access to publicly funded research, aligned with international policies and initiatives, and is now seeking to strengthen its approach to support international developments on Open Science led by the European Commission, Science Europe and other international agencies.

The Irish Open Access landscape favours the ‘Green’ approach to Open Access. This was outlined in Ireland’s National Principles on Open Access which stressed the importance of depositing the correct versions of research papers in the researchers' local repositories.


Hungary adopted the Research Infrastructures of the European Commission in order to foster professional cooperation, the collaboration of the regional research infrastructure and also to contribute to the development of the European Research Area. The use of open infrastructure is crucial to establish a research area and users shall have an equal chance to access it if they comply with the conditions laid down in the publicly available rules.
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