Latvia has not implemented a national Open Access/Open Science policy yet. However, the Ministry of Education and Science released the "Latvian European Research Area Roadmap 2016-2020", listing the promotion of Open Access as one of the priorities.
The research policy makers, administrators and the research communities have not yet reached a full level of awareness of OA and its benefits for researchers, institutions and for society in general; however, several actions and initiatives to implement principles of OA policies are taking place in Latvia. The increasing interest about the Open Access and Research Data Management issues is demonstrated by the scientific research community of Latvia.
In late 2019 the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Latvia initiated the Open Science Latvia landscape research with one of the main aims to create a roadmap of the Open Science policy. The outcome of the research is publicly available here, and main recommendations here.

In late 2020 there were discussions started on the National Open Science Strategy, the National policy document is in progress. Please find more information about the political context of promoting the Open Science here.

In 2015, the Swedish Research Council developed a proposal for national guidelines for open access to scientific information , including publications, research data and artistic works. The proposal was produced in consultation with the National Library of Sweden and other relevant actors. It presents a proposal for how national guidelines should be formulated and includes suggestions for further assignments, investigations and allocation of responsibilities, together with a proposal that a national coordination function be set up at the appropriate authority, with the mandate to coordinate the work.

In 2017, the National Library of Sweden received the Government's assignment to nationally coordinate the implementation of open access to publications and to do this in consultation with the Swedish Research Council. The NLS has initiated five studies with the aim to produce recommendations on how to solve different obstacles to the realisation of open access to publications. During 2017-2019 five working groups with representation from HEIs, research funders, the research community and the NLS are studying the following five topics.

  • The current merit and resource allocation system versus incentives for open access;
  • Funding for a transition from a subscription-based to an open access publishing system;
  • Open access to scholarly monographs;
  • Financial and technical support for converting peer-reviewed and scholarly journals from toll access to open access;
  • Monitoring of compliance with open access policies and mandates.

In 2017 the Swedish Resarch Council received the Swedish government’s assignment to nationally coordinate the implementation of open access to research data. The assignment shall be accomplished in consultation with the National Library of Sweden and the National Archive of Sweden. The Swedish Research Council intends to be a driving actor for policies regarding open access to research data, in particular with regards to developing guidelines and generating incentives for researchers to make their research data open access.

As a part of the work with the assignment the Swedish Research Council will:

  • Contribute to and facilitate constructive discussions on research data management and research data access
  • Be policy driving in questions regarding open access to research data, e.g. concerning the production of guidelines and creating incentives
  • Work both nationally and internationally (e.g. lessons learned and cooperations)
  • Work in close cooperation with research

In December 2017 the Swedish Government assigned the National Library of Sweden to develop indicators to assess the extent to which scientific publications, which have been fully or partially produced by public funding, meet the national objective of open access being fully implemented in 2026. The indicators should enable an assessment of whether scientific publications are immediately available on publication. In parallel the Government instructs the Swedish Research Council to develop criteria to assess the extent to which research data, which has been fully or partly produced by public funding, complies with the FAIR principles. Based on the assessment indicators presented, the National Library shall also propose a method that shows a comprehensive picture of scientific publications and research data together at both national level and for publicly funded research institutions, respectively. The assignment shall be reported to the Government Offices no later than 28 February 2019.

Since 2018, the government has requested that the National Library of Sweden to compile the total expenditure for scientific publishing. The National Library of Sweden will pay particular attention to costs for subscriptions, APCs and administrative expenses.

ROARMap Sweden
OpenDOAR Sweden

The Malta Council for Science & Technology (MCST) has secured the support of the Commission's Policy Support Facility (funded through Horizon 2020) to draft a National Open Science Policy. 

Following the kick off meeting that was held in Brussels in July 2019, two (2) country visits (in Malta) of the panel of experts were held in October 2019 and December 2019. 

The implementation of the policy is planned to take place in the last quarter of 2020.

The Czech Republic National Strategy of Open Access to Scientific Information for 2017-2020 was approved by the Government on June 14, 2017. The action plan should be prepared as the next step.

The Technology Centre of the CAS (TC) supports the participation of the Czech Republic in the European Research Area and has been also appointed as the National Point of Reference according to the Commission Recommendation of 17. 7. 2012 on access to and preservation of scientific information. TC also coordinated the activities of the working group on open access which prepared the initial wording of the national strategy on open access to scientific information.

In 2017 the Norwegian government announced their national goals and guidelines for Open Access to research publications.

The aim of the policy is that all publicly funded research should be made openly available by 2024. To achieve this the Norwegian government has established specific guidelines and measures. For more, please click here

In October 2013 a new law was approved by the Parliament on cultural assets. The Decree -Law “Urgent provisions for the protection, enhancement and promotion of cultural assets, activities and tourism (13G00135) (G.U No. 186 of 09.08.2013) released on August 9 2013 and converted in law on October 7 2013 (L. 112 /2013) states that results of research, funded at least 50 % with public funds and published in scholarly journals (whose frequency is at least biannual) should be open access.

According to this law, all public research funders and administrators of public research funds are required to take provisions to implement and promote OA according to the principles stated in the law.

The law is currently under rediscussion at the parliament, thanks to a new proposal made by Deputy Andrea Gallo, president of the Chamber of Deputies Commission of Culture. The Chamber of Deputies approved the new law text in march 2019, including the change in the Italian copyright law that allows authors to keep the rights enabling open access for scientific publications. The new text also provides 1 million euros to fund an infrastructure for open access in the country and 200.000 euros each year for its operation. The law is currently under discussion at the Commission of Culture of the Senate.

Right after participating to the launch of EOSC in late 2018, the Italian ministry of research and university delegate formed a Commission of Experts, also including OpenAIRE Italian NOAD, to draft a National Roadmap for Open Science in 2019. The Roadmap was drafted in may 2019, but it is still to be officially launched by the Ministry of University and Research. A Working Group on Open Access was nominated by the Ministry of University and Research in 2019.

Ireland’s National Principles on Open Access were published in October 2012. The principles reiterate the right of the freedom of researchers to publish wherever they feel is the most appropriate. Additionally the policy states:

  • Peer-reviewed journal articles and other research outputs resulting in whole or in part from publicly-funded research should be deposited in an Open Access repository and made publicly discoverable, accessible and re-usable as soon as possible and on an ongoing basis.
  • Every publicly-funded researcher in Ireland shall have deposit rights in an Open Access repository
  • Authors shall deposit post-prints (or the publisher’s version if permitted) plus metadata of articles accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and international conference proceedings.
  • All peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications should be deposited. Other research outputs including books, book chapters, and reports should be deposited where possible.
  • The deposit should be made as soon as possible, ideally at the time of acceptance for publication, and no later than the date of formal publication.
  • Metadata shall comprise the full bibliographic and/or descriptive data and should comply with national and international standards and agreements for harvesting, reporting and interoperability.

Ireland’s national principles also encourage researchers to publish in Open Access Journals but clearly states that these papers must also be deposited in a repository. In addition, most Irish funding agencies and some Higher Education Institutions have Open Access policies.

In 2019, Ireland's National Open Research Forum published the National Framework on the Transition to an Open Research Environment. This framework is the first step in the process to create a National Action Plan for the transition to an open research environment in Ireland. This framework details a number of goals in the areas of enabling open access to research publications, enabling FAIR research data, developing infrastructures for access to and preservation of research, building skills and competencies, and creating incentives and rewards. A public consultation process will follow the publication of the framework and will ultimately inform a future National Action Plan.


Since 2009 Cyprus via the Library of the University of Cyprus is participating in European funded projects that aim to promote the Open Science policies of the European Commission, as National Open Access Desk (NOAD).

Many awareness activities (presentations, meetings, workshops etc)  took place since 2009 focusing in several stakeholders.

In addition, as part of the NOADs obligations for Open Access and Open Science awareness activities, the form of a National Open Access Working Group was considered as an essential task for putting Open Science in action. So, in 2015, with the coordination of the OpenAIRE Cyprus NOAD the different stakeholders involved in the Working Group for Open Access (consisting of the National Point of Reference for Open Access, namely the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development, the Research promotion foundation, local academic institutions and research funders), and highly supported by the coordinators of the project PASTEUR4OA (Open Access Policy Alignment Strategies for European Union Research), the form of the document for the National policy for Open Access begun. On the 25th of February 2016, the Council of ministers of the Republic of Cyprus, had finally approved the adoption of the National policy for Open Access in Cyprus. The Cyprus OA policy document is available on the National Strategy for Research and Innovation page of the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development. The National policy provides guidelines and support for the implementation of Open Access for research outputs that are funded locally, aligned with the European policies and based on the already established infrastructure at European level (e.g. OpenAIRE). Several activities are taking place in Cyprus in order to support the adoption of the national policy and ensure the success of its implementation.

The choice of long-term data repository is left to the researchers. The policy encourages the use of either disciplinary data archives, institutional repositories, or Zenodo. A Zenodo community named CYPRUS has been created and is curated by OPENAIRE Cyprus NOAD. The DG EPCD has encouraged all universities, researchers and research institutions to make use of this. The creation of a national data archive was discussed at a May 2018 meeting of the National Working Group.

In 2019, a revision of the policy (draft document) was created by the Cyprus OpenAIRE NOAD (based on the OpenAIRE RPO template), and forwarded to the relevant stakeholders. The document is under study and is to be further discussed in 2020.

Regarding the fulfilment of EOSC vision, Cyprus is participating with two partners (the University of Cyprus and the Cyprus Institute) in the InfraEOSC 5b project, National Initiatives for Open Science in Europe – NI4OS Europe that aims to be a core contributor to the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) service portfolio, commit to EOSC governance and ensure inclusiveness on the European level for enabling global Open Science. 

Portugal has not implemented a national Open Access/Open Science policy yet.

Although there is no mandate to deposit research data, FCT’s encourages grant candidates to present research data management plans.

Since june 2021 Slovakia has National strategy for Open Science (2021-2028) with its Action plan (2021-2022). National strategy is also available in English. The National Strategy for Open Science aims to improve the availability of the Slovak science results and change the system of research and evaluation processes towards higher transparency, reproducibility, and integrity.

The National Strategy covers the following topics:

  1. Open access to publicly funded publications
  2. Open access to scientific data
  3. The technical infrastructure for Open Science
  4. Open Science financing
  5. Protection of intellectual property rights
  6. Usage of existing open IT tools and open data
  7. Open Science education
  8. Evaluation of R&D with principles of Open Science
  9. Citizen Science support

Updated in August 2022.

Government of the Republic of Slovenia adopted the National Strategy of Open Access to Scientific Publications and Research Data in Slovenia 2015-2020 in September 2015 (later prolongued to 2021) and the action plan in May 2017.

A new Scientific Research and Innovation Activities Act came into force in Slovenia with the beginning of 2022 and also contains provisions regarding open science (see blogpost). A subordinate Decree on performing scientific research according to the principles of open science underwent the public consultation and will be approved by the Government of the Republic of Slovenia.

In the Resolution on the Slovenian Scientific Research and Innovation Strategy 2030 (adopted by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia), a chapter is dedicated to open science (see blogpost). Action plan for the implementation of the Resolution regarding open science is in preparation (August 2022) and will coincide with the national Recovery and Resilience Plan activities on digitisation for open science. 



Open Access Policy

A national open access strategy is under preparation. In 2015 Poland has accepted an initial document that lays a foundation for a future national open access policy. The document, entitled "Directions of the development of open access to research publications and research results in Poland", recommends a move towards open access to all relevant stakeholders. In March 2018, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MNiSW) published a report on the implementation of open access policy („Raport nt. realizacji polityki otwartego dostępu do publikacji naukowych w latach 2015-2017”, in Polish only). The document summarized the efforts that had been undertaken in the years 2015-2017, identified barriers to open access and provided recommendations for further work.

European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) National Structure

  • EOSC national structure: EOSC Network – Poland
  • EOSC mandated organisation: National Science Center (NCN)

“EOSC Network – Poland” has been established to support the development of EOSC, coordinate and strengthen EOSC-related activities at the national level and embed them in the international context of EOSC. The informal group is coordinated by the National Science Centre, a national representative to EOSC SB and a mandated organisation to EOSC Association. “EOSC–Network Poland” gathers experts from members and observers of the EOSC Association and is open to any institutions engaged with EOSC or Open Science.

More information: Garavelli, Sara, Märkälä, Anu, & Liinamaa, Iiris. (2021). EOSC National Structures: an overview of the national EOSC coordination and engagement mechanisms in Europe,

At earlier stages, the national participation in EOSC was closely related to the projects listed on the EOSC Synergy website. Institutions involved in EOSC-related projects: 

  • Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center (affiliated to the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences), PCSS,
  • Academic Computer Centre CYFRONET AGH.

Lithuania has not implemented a national Open Access/Open Science policy yet but Working Group for developing it was set up on 16 January 2020 by the Minister of Education, Science and Sport. 

In accordance with the Law on Higher Education and Research of the Republic of Lithuania (2009, revised 2015 and 2016), “in order to ensure the quality of research conducted with funds of the state budget, the transparency of the use of funds of the state budget, to enhance scientific progress, the results of all research works carried out in state higher education and research institutions must be announced publicly (in the Internet or any other way), to the extent this is in compliance with the legal acts regulating the protection of intellectual property, commercial or state and official secrets” (Article 51).

Estonia has not implemented a national Open Access/Open Science policy yet. However, in 2015, Open Science Expert Group was initiated by the Estonian Research Council to support drafting a national Open Science policy by complying principles and recommendations for the development of national open science policy. These recommendations were published in June 2016. This document is recommendations of the expert committee and should not be considered national policy on Open Science but rather a set of recommendations for developing future national OS policy.

From the end of 2019, the Ministry of Education and Research in Estonia has started to develop a Roadmap for an Open Science Policy Framework which is expected to result in official policy in a couple of years. It is expected that in a few years, this policy can result in the establishment of Estonian Open Science Competence Center which is a central support system for open science implementation in Estonia.

Estonian Research Council has started to require research data management plans from all personal grant applications and has officially started to evaluate these DMPs.

The Estonian Research Information System (ETIS) is developing into the Estonian research information database, including the central repository of research publications. Starting from 2013, the competition-based funding instruments (institutional and personal research funding) include a requirement for open access: “The publications that result from the implementation of the research theme shall be freely available to the public in ETIS, unless set forth otherwise in the conditions for publication, and for the protection of copyright or intellectual property rights.”

Belgium recognized in an early stage the importance of Open Access. Many Belgian research organisations subscribed to the Berlin Declaration on Open Access in 2007, at a conference organised by DRIVER. This ambition was affirmed by the Brussels Declaration on Open Access, signed in 2012 by the Belgian, Flemish and French Community ministers of research at a conference organised by OpenAIRE. The declaration makes Open Access the default in circulating the results of Belgian academic and scientific research.

An Open Access provision has been adopted in the Belgian law in Sep. 2018. This law gives authors the right to make scholarly publications available in open access if the publication is a result of research funded by public funds for at least 50%, with a maximum embargo period of  6 months for STM and 12 months for SSH.

The 'Open Access Decree' of the Wallonia-Brussels Federation consolidates the deposit policy of the Universities, stipulating that all scientific articles subsidized by public funds must be deposited in an institutional directory.

The National Open Science policy is in the process of being designed. A National Open Science Committee of relevant stakeholders and key decision makers from the State Research Agency (AEI), the National academic evaluation agency (ANECA), the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Institute of Health Carlos III, the Alliance of excellence research institutions and research units (SOMMA), the association of Universities’ Rectors (CRUE) was set up in late 2018 by the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT). This Committee has been working during 2019 in laying the foundations for an adequate Open Science policy design and an optimal implementation. The Committee will continue its work during 2020 under the leadership of the Ministry for Science and Technology.

Austria has not implemented a national Open Access/Open Science policy yet.

Taking the ROARMAP into account, there are 14 research organizations and two funders, which already have one.

As of 2020/01:
The latest Austrian government programme, includes a commitment regarding actively supporting Plan S towards the implementation of Open Access. Subsequently, the principles of Plan S are supposed to be implemented by all universities and extramural research institutions in Austria.

The key purposes of the Research Excellence Framework (REF) include:

  • to inform the selective allocation of funding for research
  • to provide accountability for public investment in research and produce evidence of the benefits of this investment
  • to provide benchmarking information and establish reputational yardsticks, for use in the higher education sector and for public information.

This major exercise is undertaken by the four UK higher education funding bodies (UK Research and Innovation, the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, the Scottish Funding Council and the Department for the Economy in Northern Ireland).

The REF was first conducted in 2014, replacing the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE).

The development of the next exercise is now well underway and scheduled to take place in 2021.

In a letter dated 4 December 2015, the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (hereinafter SERI) commissioned swissuniversities (the association of Swiss Higher Education Institutions) to elaborate, with the support of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), a national strategy for Open Access to publications (hereinafter OA). This national OA strategy was formulated by a representative working group led by swissuniversities and was adopted by the plenary assembly of swissuniversities on 31 January 2017.

The Open Access Strategy contains the vision that all publicly funded publications must be freely accessible until 2024. In general, it is desirable that all scientific publications in Switzerland should be available for Open Access by 2024. This vision is based on the current European models. In order to implement this vision, various fields of action have been defined with the aim of reconciling Open Access practices in Switzerland, strengthening negotiations with publishers and the incentives for researchers, as well as examining new types of publications and platforms.
In February 2018, the Plenary Assembly of swissuniversities approved this action plan and the University Council of the Swiss University Conference approved it.
Implementation will now begin under the coordination of swissuniversities, taking into account the autonomy of the universities. The national Open Access Strategy serves as a fundamental instrument for managing the transformation process and optimising the use of resources.

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OpenAIRE has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under Grant Agreements No. 777541 and 101017452 (see all).

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