National policy

National Platform Open Science

In February 2017 the National Plan Open Science in the Netherlands was published. This Plan shows the ambition of the involved institutes towards Open Science. The implementation of this plan has been followed up by the National Platform Open Science. Together with the publishing of the plan a new website was launched: National Platform Open Science.

There are 17  parties involved like the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, national funders NWO and ZonMw, the Academy KNAW, DANS, Association of Universities VSNU, the National Library KB etc.

The focus of the Platform was to accelerate the key areas: Full open access publishing; Optimal reuse of research data; Corresponding evaluation systems for recognition and rewards; and,Encouraging and supporting open science.

In May 2019 NPOS changed to a programme, with a number of projects in the field of the above-mentioned topics:

  • Transition costs Open Science: see the report.
  • Exploration of broadening Open Access to books: see the plan (in Dutch).
  • Exploration and optimization of the national data landscape: see the report (in Dutch).
  • Professionalising data stewardship: competences, training and education: see the report.
  • Indicators Open Science
  • Accelerate Open Science: organising a yearly National Open Science Festival
  • Citizen Science: see the report (in Dutch).

EOSC-related activities

In the Netherlands there are a number of institutes involved in the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). The European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) project aims to make it easier for researchers to share and combine data, also across disciplinary boundaries.

  • DANS (Data Archiving and Networked Services) is regular member and NOAD of OpenAIRE AMKE.
  • DANS is projectleader of FAIRsFAIR. The ambition of FAIRsFAIR is to assist the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) governance bodies to deliver FAIR-aligned Rules of Participation in the EOSC. These rules will be designed to establish FAIR compliance of components and practices. Moreover, FAIRsFAIR will open up and share all knowledge, expertise, guidelines, implementations, new trajectories, courses and education needed to turn FAIR Principles into reality.
  • The aim of SSHOC - Social Sciences & Humanities Open Cloud - (January 2019 to April 2022) is to ensure that initiatives from the current European research infrastructures in the field of Social and Human Sciences (SSH) are better aligned with each other and with the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). In the Netherlands DANS, CentERdata, University of Amsterdam, and Tilburg University are involved in SSHOC.
  • EOSC-synergyextends the EOSC coordination to nine participating countries by harmonizing policies and federating relevant national research e-Infrastructures, scientific data and thematic services, bridging the gap between national initiatives and EOSC. Partners are EGI Foundation and DANS.
  • Goal of EOSC Future (April 2021 - September 2023) is to integrate, consolidate, and connect e-infrastructures, research communities, and initiatives in Open Science to further develop the EOSC Portal, EOSC-Core and EOSC-Exchange of the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). In the Netherlands DANS (as Linked Third Party to OpenAIRE), EGI and the University of Amsterdam are partners in the project.
  • DANS is member of the EOSC Working Group Skills and Training. In the Netherlands there are more members of the different EOSC Working Groups.

Former EOSC-related projects in the Netherlands:

The Library of TU/Delft and DANS were the National Open Access Desks NL in two OpenAIRE projects (OpenAIRE 2020 and OpenAIRE Advance). OpenAIRE supports the Open Science of the European Commission. DANS was also leader of the RDM (Research Data Management) Task Force of OpenAIRE Advance.

FREYAwas a 3-year project (December 2017 - December 2020) in which twelve partners are involved. The project aimed to build the infrastructure for persistent identifiers (PIDs) as a core component of open science, in the EU and globally. Goal of FREYA was to improve discovery, navigation, retrieval, and access of research resources. In the DANS was involved in this project.

The EOSC-hubproject (January 2018 - March 2021) existed of a consortium of 100+ partners from more than 50 countries. The consortium developed the vision of the Hub as the integration and management system of the future European Open Science Cloud. Besides DANS (Linked Third Party to SURF), other involved institutes in the Netherlands were SURF, University Utrecht, Astron, KNMI, and Meertens Institute. Project leaderof EOSC-hub is EGI Foundation in Amsterdam.


National Policy

In the federated environment of Germany, competition among universities and research institutions is stimulating, yet also challenging to the development of a national Open Access policy. Presently, there is no national OA mandate, however some OA statements/policies of German universities and research institutions/organizations are in place.

The most prominent statement in use is the 2003 “Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities”, signed by approx. 250 international research institutions/organizations (with >30 from Germany, including the German Rectors’ Conference which includes 258 universities and other HE institutions; the Max Planck Society, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, the Helmholtz Association and the Leibniz Association).

National policy

Open Access to Theses and Dissertations has been Enacted by the Parliament. The Art. 10 of Law numbered 7100 has been entered into force upon publication of the Official Gazette numbered 30352 and dated March 06, 2018. According to this article, which constitutes Additional Art 40 of Higher Education Code numbered 2547: "Unless a decision of secrecy is taken by the authorized institutions and organizations, the graduate theses shall be opened to access in the electronic environment by the National Theses Center of the Council of Higher Education in order to contribute to science."

National policy

Belgium recognized in an early stage the importance of Open Access. Many Belgian research organisations subscribed to the Berlin Declaration on Open Access in 2007, at a conference organised by DRIVER. This ambition was affirmed by the Brussels Declaration on Open Access, signed in 2012 by the Belgian, Flemish and French Community ministers of research at a conference organised by OpenAIRE. The declaration makes Open Access the default in circulating the results of Belgian academic and scientific research.

An Open Access provision has been adopted in the Belgian law in Sep. 2018. This law gives authors the right to make scholarly publications available in open access if the publication is a result of research funded by public funds for at least 50%, with a maximum embargo period of  6 months for STM and 12 months for SSH.

The 'Open Access Decree' of the Wallonia-Brussels Federation consolidates the deposit policy of the Universities, stipulating that all scientific articles subsidized by public funds must be deposited in an institutional directory.

National policy

Since 2009 Cyprus via the Library of the University of Cyprus is participating in European funded projects that aim to promote the Open Science policies of the European Commission, as National Open Access Desk (NOAD).

Many awareness activities (presentations, meetings, workshops etc)  took place since 2009 focusing in several stakeholders.

In addition, as part of the NOADs obligations for Open Access and Open Science awareness activities, the form of a National Open Access Working Group was considered as an essential task for putting Open Science in action. So, in 2015, with the coordination of the OpenAIRE Cyprus NOAD the different stakeholders involved in the Working Group for Open Access (consisting of the National Point of Reference for Open Access, namely the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development, the Research promotion foundation, local academic institutions and research funders), and highly supported by the coordinators of the project PASTEUR4OA (Open Access Policy Alignment Strategies for European Union Research), the form of the document for the National policy for Open Access begun. On the 25th of February 2016, the Council of ministers of the Republic of Cyprus, had finally approved the adoption of the National policy for Open Access in Cyprus. The Cyprus OA policy document is available on the National Strategy for Research and Innovation page of the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development. The National policy provides guidelines and support for the implementation of Open Access for research outputs that are funded locally, aligned with the European policies and based on the already established infrastructure at European level (e.g. OpenAIRE). Several activities are taking place in Cyprus in order to support the adoption of the national policy and ensure the success of its implementation.

The choice of long-term data repository is left to the researchers. The policy encourages the use of either disciplinary data archives, institutional repositories, or Zenodo. A Zenodo community named CYPRUS has been created and is curated by OPENAIRE Cyprus NOAD. The DG EPCD has encouraged all universities, researchers and research institutions to make use of this. The creation of a national data archive was discussed at a May 2018 meeting of the National Working Group.

In 2019, a revision of the policy (draft document) was created by the Cyprus OpenAIRE NOAD (based on the OpenAIRE RPO template), and forwarded to the relevant stakeholders. The document is under study and is to be further discussed in 2020.

Regarding the fulfilment of EOSC vision, Cyprus is participating with two partners (the University of Cyprus and the Cyprus Institute) in the InfraEOSC 5b project, National Initiatives for Open Science in Europe – NI4OS Europe that aims to be a core contributor to the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC) service portfolio, commit to EOSC governance and ensure inclusiveness on the European level for enabling global Open Science. 

National policy

Even though National Open Science Policies have not been published, OA has already been endorsed through government statements.

National policy

Portugal has not implemented a national Open Access/Open Science policy yet.

Although there is no mandate to deposit research data, FCT’s encourages grant candidates to present research data management plans.

National policy

National policies on access and preservation of scientific information are mainly the responsibility of the Croatian Ministry of Science and Education (MSE). In principle, MSE supports OA to scientific information but it still has not adopted a national OA or OS policy. However, openness is mentioned in a few strategic documents and supported by many stakeholders in the research community.

In 2012, a number of institutions and researchers signed the Croatian Open Access Declaration, which clearly states that “results of the activities financed by public funds, especially in the field of education and science, should be made available in OA”. The Croatian Act on Scientific Activity and Higher Education mandate archiving digital versions of all higher education theses in a corresponding academic library repository. There is no similar mandate for other types of publications or research data on the national level.

The Croatian Research and Innovation Infrastructures Roadmap 2014-2020 addresses the promotion of OA to scientific papers and research data, especially those funded by public sources. MSE’s Strategy of Education, Science, and Technology (in Croatian) recognizes that setting up an OA system for research data, publications, and teaching resources is a key to improving the research environment. 

The Croatian Rectors’ Conference has declared support to OA in its document Research assessment and promotion of OA to scientific information and research data. It believes that OA would promote a transparent evaluation of individuals and organizations. It also supports the idea that OA to scientific publications should be mandated in Croatia. The recommendation of the Minister of Science and Education to Croatian research organizations is to share information on scientific equipment acquired by public funds through the national database of scientific equipment - Šestar.

Currently, there are no ORDM-related policies or requirements for research funders and other research sector stakeholders in Croatia, nor are there rewarding mechanisms in place. The Croatian Science Foundation (CSF), the main national funder of scientific, higher education and technological programs and projects in Croatia, has not adopted any policies on RDM yet, but it informs applicants about the importance of research data management and FAIR principles as they prepare a research proposal.

Current Croatian regulations and criteria for career advancement and hiring in RPOs and HEIs favour two quantitative measures: the number of papers published and the prestige of the journals in which they were published. Prestige stems from whether the journal is indexed by the Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus or similar database, but more importantly from high Journal Impact Factor. For now, OA or OS in no way up researcher's chances for advancement.

Research data sharing in Croatia is in its initial phase, and researchers are not encouraged and/or rewarded for sharing their research data, except when mandated by funders (e.g. EC through H2020 projects).

The national contact point for the open access to the scientific information is Jadranka Stojanovski, appointed by the Croatian Ministry of science and education.

National policy

Responsible institutions:
• Ministry of Education and Science
• National Council for Science and Innovations
• National Centre for Information and Documentation

Strategic framework:
• National Open Science Plan, since January 2020 – the main strategic document with regards to open science that outlines the open science vision of Bulgaria, gives an overview of reached milestones and takes them into account and outlines detailed objectives, commitments and action points with regard to the development and sustainability of the open science initiative in Bulgaria for the next five years.
• National strategy for the development of the scientific research 2017 – 2030 + Implementation plan – “open access to scientific information” is a strategic action point and also there is an objective “active participation in the European research area and strengthening international cooperation and partnerships in the field of science, including the EOSC and similar initiatives.”
• National concept for open access to scientific information - outlines the essence and framework of open science.
• Guidelines on sharing scientific publications with open access and using the national repository and the portal for open science are published in BPOS and are distributed within the research community.
• Instructions for publishing in the national repository are available on BPOS.

Government documents regarding open access and open science:

National Strategy for Development of the Scientific Research
Recommendation 1. The Ministry of Education and Science shall establish a policy of open access. The national policy of open access should be formulated on the basis of the green model, within which quality is ensured by scientific publications. This should embrace all research institutions which perform and/or disseminate fully or partially state-funded research. Access to the results of state-funded research should be provided to the greatest possible extent.

Recommendation 2. Scientific institutions and foundations shall also establish policies on open access. All research institutions and public foundations should implement open access policies consistent with the national policy of open access.

Recommendation 3. Universities and other research institutions shall implement and promote the open access policy. All universities and research institutions should encourage open access policies which are consistent with the national policy of open access.

Recommendation 4. Exploring the opportunities for coordination between the bibliometric indicator and the open access policies.An investigation should be carried out on to find out whether it is possible to achieve coordination between the bibliometric indicator and open access.

Recommendation 5. A single joint national database for research has to be established. All state-funded research should be entered in the databases of all research institutions and/or be connected in a joint portal for research.

Recommendation 6. Exploring the need for a repository for the scientific publications of small research institutions.An investigation of small research institutions’ need of a joint repository should be carried out.

Recommendation 7. Scientific publishers, research institutions and publishers shall prepare a joint document on the transition to open access.Bulgarian scientific institutions should be encouraged to make suggestions on how to perform the transition of Bulgarian scientific journals to open access.

Recommendation 8. Informing the scientific community. An information campaign on open access directed to the scientific community should be carried out, in the form of a conference and information materials.

Recommendation 9. Coordinating the open access initiative with similar international initiatives.Representatives of research councils in international research fora can provide coordination with international policies for open access.

Recommendation 10. Licenses shall receive consideration. The negotiation of the remuneration of authors within gold open access should be given consideration. Free use of green access and transparency in payment of services should be ensured.

Recommendation 11. Participation in national fora for cooperation in the field of interoperability and repositories.Bulgaria's participation in central fora for cooperation such as Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR) should be guaranteed.

Recommendation 12. Creating a service for long-term storage of scientific publications. A service for long-term storage should be created, which will ensure that the digital publications can be read and used for a long time.

Recommendation 13. Planning open access and long-term conservation of the original data. The archiving of data should be planned, so as to ensure present and future access to them.

National policy

The National Open Science policy is in the process of being designed. A National Open Science Committee of relevant stakeholders and key decision makers from the State Research Agency (AEI), the National academic evaluation agency (ANECA), the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Institute of Health Carlos III, the Alliance of excellence research institutions and research units (SOMMA), the association of Universities’ Rectors (CRUE) was set up in late 2018 by the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT). This Committee has been working during 2019 in laying the foundations for an adequate Open Science policy design and an optimal implementation. The Committee will continue its work during 2020 under the leadership of the Ministry for Science and Technology.

National policy

The Ministry of Education and Culture as part of the Government steers and finances the activities of higher education institutions that are autonomous actorsThe objectives of science policy include "to bolster the research infrastructure" and "to safeguard the openness of research and science".The Research and Innovation Council, advisory body chaired by the Prime Minister, adopted its vision and roadmapin October 2017The roadmap reaches to 2030 and states that “openness of science will be promoted on several fronts.

The Finnish research community has jointly created a Declaration for Open Science and Research. The declaration was prepared by the Open Science Coordination in Finland and was approved by the National Open Science and Research Steering Group in December 2019. The declaration provides a common direction for the development of the research community. The declaration outlines a vision, where open science and research are seamlessly integrated in researchers' everyday work. The declaration defines four objectives that specify how openness will become part of the daily life of researchers and scientists: (1) research culture, (2) open access to research publications, (3) open access to research data and methods, and (4) open education and educational resources as promoted by the research community.

In addition to the Declaration for Open Science and Research, there are policies of open science and research that outline in detail the strategic principles, objectives and action plans necessary to achieve the objectives set out in the declaration. You can see the current status of the policy documents on the Open Science Coordination's website.

On a practical level, the Open Science in Finland is also significantly affected by FinELib's negotiations with scientific publishers (see FinELib’s policy on open access and transformative agreements) and the Ministry of Education and Culture's additional fundingfor open access publications: in the newfunding model from 2021open access publications will be rewarded a coefficient of 1.2.

National policy

In 2015, the Swedish Research Council developed a proposal for national guidelines for open access to scientific information , including publications, research data and artistic works. The proposal was produced in consultation with the National Library of Sweden and other relevant actors. It presents a proposal for how national guidelines should be formulated and includes suggestions for further assignments, investigations and allocation of responsibilities, together with a proposal that a national coordination function be set up at the appropriate authority, with the mandate to coordinate the work.

In 2017, the National Library of Sweden received the Government's assignment to nationally coordinate the implementation of open access to publications and to do this in consultation with the Swedish Research Council. The NLS has initiated five studies with the aim to produce recommendations on how to solve different obstacles to the realisation of open access to publications. During 2017-2019 five working groups with representation from HEIs, research funders, the research community and the NLS are studying the following five topics.

  • The current merit and resource allocation system versus incentives for open access;
  • Funding for a transition from a subscription-based to an open access publishing system;
  • Open access to scholarly monographs;
  • Financial and technical support for converting peer-reviewed and scholarly journals from toll access to open access;
  • Monitoring of compliance with open access policies and mandates.

In 2017 the Swedish Resarch Council received the Swedish government’s assignment to nationally coordinate the implementation of open access to research data. The assignment shall be accomplished in consultation with the National Library of Sweden and the National Archive of Sweden. The Swedish Research Council intends to be a driving actor for policies regarding open access to research data, in particular with regards to developing guidelines and generating incentives for researchers to make their research data open access.

As a part of the work with the assignment the Swedish Research Council will:

  • Contribute to and facilitate constructive discussions on research data management and research data access
  • Be policy driving in questions regarding open access to research data, e.g. concerning the production of guidelines and creating incentives
  • Work both nationally and internationally (e.g. lessons learned and cooperations)
  • Work in close cooperation with research

In December 2017 the Swedish Government assigned the National Library of Sweden to develop indicators to assess the extent to which scientific publications, which have been fully or partially produced by public funding, meet the national objective of open access being fully implemented in 2026. The indicators should enable an assessment of whether scientific publications are immediately available on publication. In parallel the Government instructs the Swedish Research Council to develop criteria to assess the extent to which research data, which has been fully or partly produced by public funding, complies with the FAIR principles. Based on the assessment indicators presented, the National Library shall also propose a method that shows a comprehensive picture of scientific publications and research data together at both national level and for publicly funded research institutions, respectively. The assignment shall be reported to the Government Offices no later than 28 February 2019.

Since 2018, the government has requested that the National Library of Sweden to compile the total expenditure for scientific publishing. The National Library of Sweden will pay particular attention to costs for subscriptions, APCs and administrative expenses.

ROARMap Sweden
OpenDOAR Sweden

National policy

In a letter dated 4 December 2015, the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (hereinafter SERI) commissioned swissuniversities (the association of Swiss Higher Education Institutions) to elaborate, with the support of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), a national strategy for Open Access to publications (hereinafter OA). This national OA strategy was formulated by a representative working group led by swissuniversities and was adopted by the plenary assembly of swissuniversities on 31 January 2017.

The Open Access Strategy contains the vision that all publicly funded publications must be freely accessible until 2024. In general, it is desirable that all scientific publications in Switzerland should be available for Open Access by 2024. This vision is based on the current European models. In order to implement this vision, various fields of action have been defined with the aim of reconciling Open Access practices in Switzerland, strengthening negotiations with publishers and the incentives for researchers, as well as examining new types of publications and platforms.
In February 2018, the Plenary Assembly of swissuniversities approved this action plan and the University Council of the Swiss University Conference approved it.
Implementation will now begin under the coordination of swissuniversities, taking into account the autonomy of the universities. The national Open Access Strategy serves as a fundamental instrument for managing the transformation process and optimising the use of resources.

National policy

The key purposes of the Research Excellence Framework (REF) include:

  • to inform the selective allocation of funding for research
  • to provide accountability for public investment in research and produce evidence of the benefits of this investment
  • to provide benchmarking information and establish reputational yardsticks, for use in the higher education sector and for public information.

This major exercise is undertaken by the four UK higher education funding bodies (UK Research and Innovation, the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, the Scottish Funding Council and the Department for the Economy in Northern Ireland).

The REF was first conducted in 2014, replacing the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE).

The development of the next exercise is now well underway and scheduled to take place in 2021.

National policy

Austria has not implemented a national Open Access/Open Science policy yet.

Taking the ROARMAP into account, there are 14 research organizations and two funders, which already have one.

As of 2020/01:
The latest Austrian government programme, includes a commitment regarding actively supporting Plan S towards the implementation of Open Access. Subsequently, the principles of Plan S are supposed to be implemented by all universities and extramural research institutions in Austria.

National policy

Ireland’s National Principles on Open Access were published in October 2012. The principles reiterate the right of the freedom of researchers to publish wherever they feel is the most appropriate. Additionally the policy states:

  • Peer-reviewed journal articles and other research outputs resulting in whole or in part from publicly-funded research should be deposited in an Open Access repository and made publicly discoverable, accessible and re-usable as soon as possible and on an ongoing basis.
  • Every publicly-funded researcher in Ireland shall have deposit rights in an Open Access repository
  • Authors shall deposit post-prints (or the publisher’s version if permitted) plus metadata of articles accepted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and international conference proceedings.
  • All peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications should be deposited. Other research outputs including books, book chapters, and reports should be deposited where possible.
  • The deposit should be made as soon as possible, ideally at the time of acceptance for publication, and no later than the date of formal publication.
  • Metadata shall comprise the full bibliographic and/or descriptive data and should comply with national and international standards and agreements for harvesting, reporting and interoperability.

Ireland’s national principles also encourage researchers to publish in Open Access Journals but clearly states that these papers must also be deposited in a repository. In addition, most Irish funding agencies and some Higher Education Institutions have Open Access policies.

In 2019, Ireland's National Open Research Forum published the National Framework on the Transition to an Open Research Environment. This framework is the first step in the process to create a National Action Plan for the transition to an open research environment in Ireland. This framework details a number of goals in the areas of enabling open access to research publications, enabling FAIR research data, developing infrastructures for access to and preservation of research, building skills and competencies, and creating incentives and rewards. A public consultation process will follow the publication of the framework and will ultimately inform a future National Action Plan.


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